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In this work, the phase diagram of the 2+1-dimensional Gross-Neveu model is investigated with baryon chemical potential as well as chiral chemical potential in the mean-field approximation. We study the theory using two lattice discretizations, which are both based on naive fermions. An inhomogeneous chiral phase is observed only for one of the two discretizations. Our results suggest that this phase disappears in the continuum limit.

In this work we study the 3+1-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean field-approximation. We carry out calculations using five different regularization schemes (two continuum and three lattice regularization schemes) with particular focus on inhomogeneous phases and condensates. The regularization schemes lead to drastically different inhomogeneous regions. We provide evidence that inhomogeneous condensates appear for all regularization schemes almost exclusively at values of the chemical potential and with wave numbers, which are of the order of or even larger than the corresponding regulators. This can be interpreted as indication that inhomogeneous phases in the 3+1-dimensional NJL model are rather artifacts of the regularization and not a consequence of the NJL Lagrangian and its symmetries.

In this work, inhomogeneous chiral phases are studied in a variety of Four-Fermion and Yukawa models in 2+1 dimensions at zero and non-zero temperature and chemical potentials. Employing the mean-field approximation, we do not find indications for an inhomogeneous phase in any of the studied models. We show that the homogeneous phases are stable against inhomogeneous perturbations. At zero temperature, full analytic results are presented.

We continue previous investigations of the (inhomogeneous) phase structure of the Gross-Neveu model in a noninteger number of spatial dimensions (1≤d<3) in the limit of an infinite number of fermion species (N→∞) at (non)zero chemical potential μ. In this work, we extend the analysis from zero to nonzero temperature T.
The phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu model in 1≤d<3 spatial dimensions is well known under the assumption of spatially homogeneous condensation with both a symmetry broken and a symmetric phase present for all spatial dimensions. In d=1 one additionally finds an inhomogeneous phase, where the order parameter, the condensate, is varying in space. Similarly, phases of spatially varying condensates are also found in the Gross-Neveu model in d=2 and d=3, as long as the theory is not fully renormalized, i.e., in the presence of a regulator. For d=2, one observes that the inhomogeneous phase vanishes, when the regulator is properly removed (which is not possible for d=3 without introducing additional parameters).
In the present work, we use the stability analysis of the symmetric phase to study the presence (for 1≤d<2) and absence (for 2≤d<3) of these inhomogeneous phases and the related moat regimes in the fully renormalized Gross-Neveu model in the μ,T-plane. We also discuss the relation between "the number of spatial dimensions" and "studying the model with a finite regulator" as well as the possible consequences for the limit d→3.

Inhomogeneous condensation in the Gross-Neveu model in noninteger spatial dimensions 1 ≤ d < 3
(2023)

The Gross-Neveu model in the N→∞ approximation in d=1 spatial dimensions exhibits a chiral inhomogeneous phase (IP), where the chiral condensate has a spatial dependence that spontaneously breaks translational invariance and the Z2 chiral symmetry. This phase is absent in d=2, while in d=3 its existence and extent strongly depends on the regularization and the value of the finite regulator. This work connects these three results smoothly by extending the analysis to non-integer spatial dimensions 1≤d<3, where the model is fully renormalizable. To this end, we adapt the stability analysis, which probes the stability of the homogeneous ground state under inhomogeneous perturbations, to non-integer spatial dimensions. We find that the IP is present for all d<2 and vanishes exactly at d=2. Moreover, we find no instability towards an IP for 2≤d<3, which suggests that the IP in d=3 is solely generated by the presence of a regulator.

We show the absence of an instability of homogeneous (chiral) condensates against spatially inhomogeneous perturbations for various 2+1-dimensional four-fermion and Yukawa models. All models are studied at non-zero baryon chemical potential, while some of them are also subjected to chiral and isospin chemical potential. The considered theories contain up to 16 Lorentz-(pseudo)scalar fermionic interaction channels. We prove the stability of homogeneous condensates by analyzing the bosonic two-point function, which can be expressed in a purely analytical form at zero temperature. Our analysis is presented in a general manner for all of the different discussed models. We argue that the absence of an inhomogeneous chiral phase (where the chiral condensate is spatially non-uniform) follows from this lack of instability. Furthermore, the existence of a moat regime, where the bosonic wave function renormalization is negative, in these models is ruled out.

Inhomogeneous condensation in the Gross-Neveu model in non-integer spatial dimensions 1 ≤ d < 3
(2023)

he Gross-Neveu model in the N→∞ approximation in d=1 spatial dimensions exhibits a chiral inhomogeneous phase (IP), where the chiral condensate has a spatial dependence that spontaneously breaks translational invariance and the Z2 chiral symmetry. This phase is absent in d=2, while in d=3 its existence and extent strongly depends on the regularization and the value of the finite regulator. This work connects these three results smoothly by extending the analysis to non-integer spatial dimensions 1≤d<3, where the model is fully renormalizable. To this end, we adapt the stability analysis, which probes the stability of the homogeneous ground state under inhomogeneous perturbations, to non-integer spatial dimensions. We find that the IP is present for all d<2 and vanishes exactly at d=2. Moreover, we find no instability towards an IP for 2≤d<3, which suggests that the IP in d=3 is solely generated by the presence of a regulator.

We show the absence of an instability of homogeneous (chiral) condensates against spatially inhomogeneous perturbations for various (2+1)-dimensional four-fermion and Yukawa models. All models are studied at nonzero baryon chemical potential, while some of them are also subjected to chiral and isospin chemical potential. The considered theories contain up to 16 Lorentz-(pseudo)scalar fermionic interaction channels. We prove the stability of homogeneous condensates by analyzing the bosonic two-point function, which can be expressed in a purely analytical form at zero temperature. Our analysis is presented in a general manner for all of the different discussed models. We argue that the absence of an inhomogeneous chiral phase (where the chiral condensate is spatially nonuniform) follows from this lack of instability. Furthermore, the existence of a moat regime, where the bosonic wave-function renormalization is negative, in these models is ruled out.

Inhomogeneous condensation in the Gross-Neveu model in noninteger spatial dimensions 1 ≤ d < 3
(2023)

The Gross-Neveu model in the N→∞ limit in d=1 spatial dimensions exhibits a chiral inhomogeneous phase (IP), where the chiral condensate has a spatial dependence that spontaneously breaks translational invariance and the Z2 chiral symmetry. This phase is absent in d=2, while in d=3 its existence and extent strongly depends on the regularization and the value of the finite regulator. This work connects these three results smoothly by extending the analysis to noninteger spatial dimensions 1≤d<3, where the model is fully renormalizable. To this end, we adapt the stability analysis, which probes the stability of the homogeneous ground state under inhomogeneous perturbations, to noninteger spatial dimensions. We find that the IP is present for all d<2 and vanishes exactly at d=2. Moreover, we find no instability toward an IP for 2≤d<3, which suggests that the IP in d=3 is solely generated by the presence of a regulator.