Sphk1 and Sphk2 differentially regulate erythropoietin synthesis in mouse renal interstitial fibroblast-like cells

  • Erythropoietin (Epo) is a crucial hormone regulating red blood cell number and consequently the hematocrit. Epo is mainly produced in the kidney by interstitial fibroblast-like cells. Previously, we have shown that in cultures of the immortalized mouse renal fibroblast-like cell line FAIK F3-5, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), by activating S1P1 and S1P3 receptors, can stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α and upregulate Epo mRNA and protein synthesis. In this study, we have addressed the role of intracellular iS1P derived from sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 on Epo synthesis in F3-5 cells and in mouse primary cultures of renal fibroblasts. We show that stable knockdown of Sphk2 in F3-5 cells increases HIF-2α protein and Epo mRNA and protein levels, while Sphk1 knockdown leads to a reduction of hypoxia-stimulated HIF-2α and Epo protein. A similar effect was obtained using primary cultures of renal fibroblasts isolated from wildtype mice, Sphk1−/−, or Sphk2−/− mice. Furthermore, selective Sphk2 inhibitors mimicked the effect of genetic Sphk2 depletion and also upregulated HIF-2α and Epo protein levels. The combined blockade of Sphk1 and Sphk2, using Sphk2−/− renal fibroblasts treated with the Sphk1 inhibitor PF543, resulted in reduced HIF-2α and Epo compared to the untreated Sphk2−/− cells. Exogenous sphingosine (Sph) enhanced HIF-2α and Epo, and this was abolished by the combined treatment with the selective S1P1 and S1P3 antagonists NIBR-0213 and TY52156, suggesting that Sph was taken up by cells and converted to iS1P and exported to then act in an autocrine manner through S1P1 and S1P3. The upregulation of HIF-2α and Epo synthesis by Sphk2 knockdown was confirmed in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B, which is well-established to upregulate Epo production under hypoxia. In summary, these data show that sphingolipids have diverse effects on Epo synthesis. While accumulation of intracellular Sph reduces Epo synthesis, iS1P will be exported to act through S1P1+3 to enhance Epo synthesis. Furthermore, these data suggest that selective inhibition of Sphk2 is an attractive new option to enhance Epo synthesis and thereby to reduce anemia development in chronic kidney disease.

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Author:Redona Hafizi, Faik ImeriORCiD, Bisera Stepanovska Tanturovska, Roxana Manaila, Stephanie SchwalmGND, Sandra TrautmannGND, Roland H. WengerORCiDGND, Josef PfeilschifterGND, Andrea HuwilerORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):International journal of molecular sciences
Publisher:Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2022/05/24
Date of first Publication:2022/05/24
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2023/02/14
Tag:HIF-2α, erythropoietin; Sphk1; Sphk2; anemia; renal fibroblasts; sphingosine; sphingosine 1-phosphate
Issue:11, art. 5882
Article Number:5882
Page Number:16
First Page:1
Last Page:16
This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (310030_175561/1 to A.H., 310030_184813 and NCCR “Kidney.ch”, 183774, to R.H.W.), the Hochschulstiftung der Universität Bern (20/2020, to F.I.), and the German Research Foundation (SFB 1039, project-ID: 204083920 to J.P.).
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International