Security of almost ALL discrete log bits

  • Let G be a finite cyclic group with generator \alpha and with an encoding so that multiplication is computable in polynomial time. We study the security of bits of the discrete log x when given \exp_{\alpha}(x), assuming that the exponentiation function \exp_{\alpha}(x) = \alpha^x is one-way. We reduce he general problem to the case that G has odd order q. If G has odd order q the security of the least-significant bits of x and of the most significant bits of the rational number \frac{x}{q} \in [0,1) follows from the work of Peralta [P85] and Long and Wigderson [LW88]. We generalize these bits and study the security of consecutive shift bits lsb(2^{-i}x mod q) for i=k+1,...,k+j. When we restrict \exp_{\alpha} to arguments x such that some sequence of j consecutive shift bits of x is constant (i.e., not depending on x) we call it a 2^{-j}-fraction of \exp_{\alpha}. For groups of odd group order q we show that every two 2^{-j}-fractions of \exp_{\alpha} are equally one-way by a polynomial time transformation: Either they are all one-way or none of them. Our key theorem shows that arbitrary j consecutive shift bits of x are simultaneously secure when given \exp_{\alpha}(x) iff the 2^{-j}-fractions of \exp_{\alpha} are one-way. In particular this applies to the j least-significant bits of x and to the j most-significant bits of \frac{x}{q} \in [0,1). For one-way \exp_{\alpha} the individual bits of x are secure when given \exp_{\alpha}(x) by the method of Hastad, N\"aslund [HN98]. For groups of even order 2^{s}q we show that the j least-significant bits of \lfloor x/2^s\rfloor, as well as the j most-significant bits of \frac{x}{q} \in [0,1), are simultaneously secure iff the 2^{-j}-fractions of \exp_{\alpha'} are one-way for \alpha' := \alpha^{2^s}. We use and extend the models of generic algorithms of Nechaev (1994) and Shoup (1997). We determine the generic complexity of inverting fractions of \exp_{\alpha} for the case that \alpha has prime order q. As a consequence, arbitrary segments of (1-\varepsilon)\lg q consecutive shift bits of random x are for constant \varepsilon >0 simultaneously secure against generic attacks. Every generic algorithm using $t$ generic steps (group operations) for distinguishing bit strings of j consecutive shift bits of x from random bit strings has at most advantage O((\lg q) j\sqrt{t} (2^j/q)^{\frac14}).

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Author:Claus Peter SchnorrGND
Document Type:Report
Date of Publication (online):2005/07/04
Year of first Publication:1999
Publishing Institution:Universit├Ątsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2005/07/04
Tag:discrete logarithm; exponentiation; fractions of exponentiation; hard bit; one-way function; secure bit; simultaneous security of bits
Issue:February 18, 1999
Page Number:13
Source:ECCC Report TR98-033 , ,
Institutes:Informatik und Mathematik / Mathematik
Informatik und Mathematik / Informatik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 51 Mathematik / 510 Mathematik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht