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We use a set of hadronic equations of state derived from covariant density functional theory to study the impact of their high-density behavior on the properties of rapidly rotating Δ-resonance-admixed hyperonic compact stars. In particular, we explore systematically the effects of variations of the bulk energy isoscalar skewness, Qsat, and the symmetry energy slope, Lsym, on the masses of rapidly rotating compact stars. With models for equation of state satisfying all the modern astrophysical constraints, excessively large gravitational masses of around 2.5M⊙ are only obtained under three conditions: (a) strongly attractive Δ-resonance potential in nuclear matter, (b) maximally fast (Keplerian) rotation, and (c) parameter ranges Qsat≳500 MeV and Lsym≲50 MeV. These values of Qsat and Lsym have a rather small overlap with a large sample (total of about 260) parametrizations of covariant nucleonic density functionals. The extreme nature of requirements (a)-(c) reinforces the theoretical expectation that the secondary object involved in the GW190814 event is likely to be a low-mass black hole rather than a supramassive neutron star.

We construct a new equation of state for the baryonic matter under an intense magnetic field within the framework of covariant density functional theory. The composition of matter includes hyperons as well as Δ-resonances. The extension of the nucleonic functional to the hypernuclear sector is constrained by the experimental data on Λ and Ξ-hypernuclei. We find that the equation of state stiffens with the inclusion of the magnetic field, which increases the maximum mass of neutron star compared to the non-magnetic case. In addition, the strangeness fraction in the matter is enhanced. Several observables, like the Dirac effective mass, particle abundances, etc. show typical oscillatory behavior as a function of the magnetic field and/or density which is traced back to the occupation pattern of Landau levels.

We construct a set of hyperonic equations of state (EoS) by assuming SU(3) symmetry within the baryon octet and by using a covariant density functional (CDF) theory approach. The low-density regions of our EoS are constrained by terrestrial experiments, while the high-density regime is modeled by systematically varying the nuclear matter skewness coefficient Qsat and the symmetry energy slope Lsym. The sensitivity of the EoS predictions is explored in terms of z parameter of the SU(3) symmetric model that modifies the meson-hyperon coupling constants away from their SU(6) symmetric values. Our results show that model EoS based on our approach can support static Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof (TOV) masses in the range 2.3-2.5M⊙ in the large-Qsat and small-z regime, however, such stars contain only a trace amount of hyperons compared to SU(6) models. We also construct uniformly rotating Keplerian configurations for our model EoS for which the masses of stellar sequences may reach up to 3.0M⊙. These results are used to explore the systematic dependence of the ratio of maximum masses of rotating and static stars, the lower bound on the rotational frequency of the models that will allow secondary masses in the gravitational waves events to be compact stars with M2≲3.0M⊙ and the strangeness fraction on the model parameters. We conclude that very massive stellar models can be, in principle, constructed within the SU(3) symmetric model, however, they are nucleonic-like as their strangeness fraction drops below 3%.

We provide a discussion of the bulk viscosity of two-flavor quark plasma, described by the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model, within the framework of Kubo-Zubarev formalism. This discussion, which is complementary to our earlier study, contains a new, detailed derivation of the bulk viscosity in the case of multiple conserved charges. We also provide some numerical details of the computation of the bulk viscosity close to the Mott transition line, where the dissipation is dominated by decays of mesons into quarks and their inverse processes. We close with a summary of our current understanding of this quantity, which stresses the importance of loop resummation for obtaining the qualitatively correct result near the Mott line

I review a number of recent developments in the physics of compact stars containing deconfined quark matter, including (a) their cooling with possible phase transition from a fully gapped to a gapless phase of QCD at low temperatures and large isospin; (b) the transport coeffcients of the 2SC phase and the role played by the Aharonov-Bohm interactions between flux-tubes and unpaired fermions; (c) rapidly rotating compact stars and spin-down and spin-up induced phase transition between hadronic and QCD matter as well as between different phases of QCD.

We present a new derivation of second-order relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics for quantum systems using Zubarev’s formalism for the non-equilibrium statistical operator. In particular, we discuss the shear-stress tensor to second order in gradients and argue that the relaxation terms for the dissipative quantities arise from memory effects contained in the statistical operator. We also identify new transport coefficients which describe the relaxation of dissipative processes to second order and express them in terms of equilibrium correlation functions, thus establishing Kubo-type formulae for the second-order transport coefficients.

In this paper, we discuss the damping of density oscillations in dense nuclear matter in the temperature range relevant to neutron star mergers. This damping is due to bulk viscosity arising from the weak interaction “Urca” processes of neutron decay and electron capture. The nuclear matter is modelled in the relativistic density functional approach. The bulk viscosity reaches a resonant maximum close to the neutrino trapping temperature, then drops rapidly as temperature rises into the range where neutrinos are trapped in neutron stars. We investigate the bulk viscous dissipation timescales in a post-merger object and identify regimes where these timescales are as short as the characteristic timescale ∼10 ms, and, therefore, might affect the evolution of the post-merger object. Our analysis indicates that bulk viscous damping would be important at not too high temperatures of the order of a few MeV and densities up to a few times saturation density.

We study the two-flavor color superconductivity of low-temperature quark matter in the vicinity of chiral phase transition in the quark–meson model where the interactions between quarks are generated by pion and sigma exchanges. Starting from the Nambu–Gorkov propagator in real-time formulation we obtain finite temperature (real axis) Eliashberg-type equations for the quark self-energies (gap functions) in terms of the in-medium spectral function of mesons. Exact numerical solutions of the coupled nonlinear integral equations for the real and imaginary parts of the gap function are obtained in the zero temperature limit using a model input spectral function. We find that these components of the gap display a complicated structure with the real part being strongly suppressed above , 2Δ0 where Δ0 is its on-shell value. We find Δ0 ≈ 40 MeV close to the chiral phase transition.

Baryonic models of ultra-low-mass compact stars for the central compact object in HESS J1731-347
(2023)

The recent attempt on mass and radius inference of the central compact object within the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 suggests for this object an unusually low mass of M=0.77−0.17+0.20M⊙ and a small radius of R=10.4−0.78+0.86km. We explore the ways such a result can be accommodated within models of dense matter with heavy baryonic degrees of freedom which are constrained by the multi-messenger observations. We find that to do so using only purely nucleonic models, one needs to assume a rather small value of the slope of symmetry energy Lsym. Once heavy baryons are included higher values of the slope Lsym become acceptable at the cost of a slightly reduced maximum mass of static configuration. These two scenarios are distinguished by the particle composition and will undergo different cooling scenarios. In addition, we show that the universalities of the I-Love-Q relations for static configurations can be extended to very low masses without loss in their accuracy.