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Report-no: UFTP-492/1999 Journal-ref: Phys.Rev. C61 (2000) 024909 We investigate flow in semi-peripheral nuclear collisions at AGS and SPS energies within macroscopic as well as microscopic transport models. The hot and dense zone assumes the shape of an ellipsoid which is tilted by an angle Theta with respect to the beam axis. If matter is close to the softest point of the equation of state, this ellipsoid expands predominantly orthogonal to the direction given by Theta. This antiflow component is responsible for the previously predicted reduction of the directed transverse momentum around the softest point of the equation of state.

We study the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagram in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential is presented. The results for two qualitatively different regimes, intermediate and strong diquark coupling strength, are presented. It is shown that the role of gapless phases diminishes with increasing diquark coupling strength.

We calculate thermal photon and neutral pion spectra in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of three-fluid hydrodynamics. Both spectra are quite sensitive to the equation of state used. In particular, within our model, recent data for S + Au at 200 AGeV can only be understood if a scenario with a phase transition (possibly to a quark-gluon plasma) is assumed. Results for Au+Au at 11 AGeV and Pb + Pb at 160 AGeV are also presented.

We discuss the phase diagram of moderately dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter using the framework of an effective model of quantum chromodynamics with a local interaction. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are discussed.

We study the effect of neutrino trapping on the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are presented. We show that neutrino trapping favors two-flavor color superconductivity and disfavors the color-flavor-locked phase at intermediate densities of matter. At the same time, the location of the critical line separating the two-flavor color-superconducting phase and the normal phase of quark matter is little affected by the presence of neutrinos. The implications of these results for the evolution of protoneutron stars are briefly discussed. PACS numbers: 12.39.-x 12.38.Aw 26.60.+c

We compare quark stars made of color-superconducting quark matter to normal-conducting quark stars. We focus on the most simple color-superconducting system, a two-flavor color superconductor, and employ the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to compute the gap parameter and the equation of state. By varying the strength of the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model, we study the mass and the radius of the quark star as a function of the value of the gap parameter. If the coupling constant exceeds a critical value, the gap parameter does not vanish even at zero density. For coupling constants below this critical value, mass and radius of a color-superconducting quark star change at most by ca. 20% compared to a star consisting of normal-conducting quark matter. For coupling constants above the critical value mass and radius may change by factors of two or more.

We study the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter as a function of the strange quark mass, the quark chemical potential, and the temperature, employing a general nine-parameter ansatz for the gap matrix. At zero temperature and small values of the strange quark mass, the ground state of matter corresponds to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase. At some critical value of the strange quark mass, this is replaced by the recently proposed gapless CFL (gCFL) phase. We also find several other phases, for instance, a metallic CFL (mCFL) phase, a so-called uSC phase where all colors of up quarks are paired, as well as the standard two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) phase and the gapless 2SC (g2SC) phase.

We discuss gapless colour superconductivity for neutral quark matter in β equilibrium at zero as well as at nonzero temperature. Basic properties of gapless superconductors are reviewed. The current progress and the remaining problems in the understanding of the phase diagram of strange quark matter are discussed.

To describe ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions we construct a three-fluid hydrodynamical model. In contrast to one-fluid hydrodynamics, it accounts for the finite stopping power of nuclear matter, i.e. for nonequilibrium e ects in the early stage of the reaction. Within this model, we study baryon dynamics in the BNL-AGS energy range. For the system Au+Au we find that kinetic equilibrium between projectile and target nucleons is established only after a time teq CM H 5 fm/c C 2RAu/³CM. Observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the collision (like e.g. nucleon flow) therefore di er considerably from those calculated in the one-fluid model.