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- nuclear reactions (3)
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The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d²ð/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π; exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.

Proton spectra have been calculated for the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au using a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model with viscosity and thermal conductivity and final thermal breakup. The theoretical results are compared to recent data. It is shown that the predicted flow effects are not observable as a result of the impact parameter averaging inherent in the inclusive proton spectra. In contrast, angular distributions of medium mass nuclei (A>3) in nearly central collisions can provide signatures for flow effects.

Time dependent dirac equation with relativistic mean field dynamics applied to heavy ion scattering
(1986)

We treat the relativistic propagation of nucleons coupled to scalar- and vector-meson fields in a mean-field approximation. The time-dependent Dirac and mean-meson-field equations are solved numerically in three dimensions. Collisions of 16O(300, 600, and 1200 MeV/nucleon) + 16O are studied for various impact parameters. The results are compared to other recent theoretical approaches. The calculations predict spallation, large transverse-momentum transfer, and positive-angle sidewards flow, in qualitative agreement with the data in this energy regime.

Studying Walecka's mean-field theory we find that one can reproduce the observed binding energy and density of nuclear matter within experimental precision in an area characterized by a line in the coupling-constant plane. A part of this line defines systems which exhibit a phase transition around Tc~200 MeV for zero baryon density. The rest corresponds to such systems where the phase transition is absent; in that case a peak appears in the specific heat around T~200 MeV. We interpret these results as indicating that the hadron phase of nuclear matter alone indicates the occurrence of an abrupt change in the bulk properties around ρV~0 and T~200 MeV.

We present a theoretical description of nuclear collisions which consists of a three-dimensional fluid-dynamical model, a chemical equilibrium breakup calculation for local light fragment (i.e., p, n, d, t, 3He, and 4He) production, and a final thermal evaporation of these particles. The light fragment cross sections and some properties of the heavy target residues are calculated for the asymmetric system Ne+U at 400 MeV/N. The results of the model calculations are compared with recent experimental data. Several observable signatures of the collective hydrodynamical processes are consistent with the present data. An event-by-event analysis of the flow patterns of the various clusters is proposed which can yield deeper insight into the collision dynamics.

Within a relativistic mean-field theory (RMFT) experimental data on the single-particle spectra of lambda hypernuclei are well reproduced. It is shown that the coupling constants cannot be fixed unambiguously from the single-particle spectra. The stability and structure of multi-lambda hypernuclei is explored on the basis of the RMFT using the coupling constants as determined from the observed single lambda hypernuclear levels. It is predicted that multistrange nuclei exhibit an enhanced interaction radius, which further increases in the case of finite temperatures. We suggest that multi-lambda hypernuclei could be produced in high-energy heavy ions and observed in secondary noncharge-changing reactions. The equation of state of lambda matter and the possibility of pure lambda droplets are also discussed.

Kinetic energy flow in Nb(400 A MeV) + Nb: evidence for hydrodynamic compression of nuclear matter
(1984)

A kinetic-energy—flow analysis of multiplicity-selected collisions of 93Nb(Elab=400A MeV)+93Nb is performed on the basis of the nuclear fluid dynamical model. The effects of finite particle numbers on the flow tensor are explicitly taken into account. Strong sidewards peaks are predicted in dN/dcosθF, the distribution of event by event flow angles. This is in qualitative agreement with recent data from the "Plastic Ball" electronic detection system. Cascade simulations fail to reproduce the data.

Die Moore im Nationalpark bilden den Ostteil der großen Oberharzer Vermoorung. Ihre Vegetation und Oberflächengestalt wurde erstmals von Hueck (57) beschrieben. Eine umfassende aktuelle Darstellung der Ökologie und Schutzwürdigkeit von Mooren auf niedersächsischem Gebiet des Hochharzes, die In vielen Ergebnissen auch für das Brockengebiet zutrifft, hat Jensen (17, 58) gegeben (vgl. Abb. 37). Zum Verständnis der knappen Charakteristik der Moore sei auch auf Kaule; Göttlich (l8), Succow (23), Succow; Jeschke (24) verwiesen.

Intranuclear cascade calculations and fluid dynamical predictions of the kinetic energy flow are compared for collisions of 40Ca + 40Ca and 238U + 238U. The aspect ratio, R13, as obtained from the global analysis, is independent of the bombarding energy for the intranuclear cascade model. Fluid dynamics, on the other hand, predicts a dramatic increase of R13 at medium energies Elab≲200 MeV/nucleon. In fact, R13(Elab) directly reflects the incompressibility of the nuclear matter and can be used to extract the nuclear equation of stat at high densities. Distortions of the flow tensor due to few nucleon scattering are analyzed. Possible procedures to remove this background from experimental data are discussed.