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We compare a proximity-type potential for two interacting nuclei with the double-folding method. Both spherical and deformed systems are considered. Special "orientation windows" are found for two deformed nuclei giving rise to nuclear cohesion. If the same nucleon-nucleon interaction is utilized, the proximity and the double-folding potentials agree fairly well for a spherical + deformed system. However, deviations are found in the case of two deformed nuclei.

Dynamics of Coulomb fission
(1980)

A general formalism is described for the treatment of Coulomb fission, within the framework of the semiquantal theory. We develop a model for the fission probabilities of levels excited in Coulomb excitation. This model contains penetration of the double-humped fission barrier, competition from gamma and neutron emission, and the spreading of the collective states into noncollective compound states. For 74184W + 92238U, the fission probability at θc.m.=180° is increased by a factor of 3.9, 3.3, and 2.0 at E/ECoul=0.77, 0.85, and 0.935, respectively, compared to the simplified sharp cutoff model used in earlier model calculations. The enhancement comes from barrier penetration. The damping of the fission probability due to spreading into noncollective compound states is small. Prompt Coulomb fission (near the distance of closest approach) is studied in a one-dimensional model. The results clearly imply that prompt fission is negligible. We have also studied the sudden approximation for collective rotational levels in connection with Coulomb fission. At high spins (I≈20), it leads to significant errors. Contrary to the basic assumption of the sudden approximation that the nuclear symmetry axis remains fixed during the collision, it is shown that Coulomb excitation results in a strong alignment of the nuclear symmetry axis perpendicular to the beam axis at small internuclear distances. NUCLEAR REACTIONS, FISSION Semiquantal theory of prompt and asymptotic Coulomb fission, study of double-humped barrier penetration, damping effects, neutron and γ emission. Calculated σ(Ep, θc.m.=180°).

Inner-shell ionization induced by nuclear Coulomb excitation in collisions of very heavy ions
(1978)

K- and L-shell ionization of 238U with Xe and U projectiles is investigated. Internal conversion following nuclear Coulomb excitation which is particularly important for deformed heavy nuclei is compared with direct ionization of inner-shell electrons in superheavy quasimolecules. Both processes exhibit different impact-parameter dependences. As a result of internal conversion, about 0.1-0.3 K holes per central collision are created.

Internal conversion of γ rays from Coulomb-excited nuclear levels cannot be neglected compared with the spontaneous and induced positron production in overcritical electric fields. It is shown that both processes are separable by their different distributions with respect to the ion angle and the positron energy.

Within an extended semiquantal theory we perform large-sized coupled-channel calculations involving 260 collective levels for Coulomb fission of 238U. Differential Coulomb fission cross sections are studied as a function of bombarding energy and impact parameter for several projectiles. In the Xe + U case, total cross sections are also given. We find a strong dependence on projectile charge number, PCF(180°)∼(Zp)6 in the region 50≤Zp≤92 for a fixed ratio E/ECoul, which might be helpful to separate Coulomb fission experimentally from sequential fission following transfer reactions. Since the cross sections are sensitive to the moment of inertia ⊖ at the saddle point, Coulomb fission can serve as a tool to investigate the dependence of ⊖ on elongation. The fragment angular distribution exhibits deviations from 1/sinθf which are pronounced at low incident energies. Our theory indicates that the recently measured Xe + U fission cross sections contain a major fraction of Coulomb-induced fission at E≤0.85 ECoul. NUCLEAR REACTIONS, FISSION Calculated Coulomb fission cross sections σ(Ep,θp) for 54Xe, 67Ho, 82Pb, 92U→92238U, fragment angular distribution, fission energy spectrum, mean spin value 〈Jf〉.

We present results for calculating fusion cross-sections using a new microscopic approach based on a time-dependent density-constrained DFT calculations. The theory is implemented by using densities and other information obtained from TDDFT time-evolution of the nuclear system as a constraint on the density for DFT calculations.

We discuss the implementation and results of a recently developed microscopic method for calculating ion-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross-sections. The method uses the TDHF evolution to obtain the instantaneous many-body collective state using a density constraint. The ion-ion potential as well as the coordinate dependent mass are calculated from these states. The method fully accounts for the dynamical processes present in the TDHF time-evolution and provides a parameter-free way of calculating fusion cross-sections.

We give a brief overview of recent work examining the presence of α-clusters in light nuclei within the Skyrme-force Hartree-Fock model. Of special signif cance are investigations into α-chain structures in carbon isotopes and 16O. Their stability and possible role in fusion reactions are examined in static and time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. We f nd a new type of shape transition in collisions and a centrifugal stabilization of the 4α chain state in a limited range of angular momenta. No stabilization is found for the 3α chain.

Coupled channel calculations for Coulomb and nuclear excitation of the systems 136Xe-238U and 238U-238U have been performed using the rotation-vibration model. The impact parameter-, energy-and spin-dependence of the excitation probabilities are discussed for the ground state-, β-and γ-band up to Jπ = 36+. It is shown that the energy levels and quadrupole matrix elements are strongly influenced by the rotation-vibration interaction. Analytic expressions for the elastic and coupling potentials are presented.