Transforming growth factor β1 genotypes in relation to TGFβ1, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in induced sputum and blood in cystic fibrosis
Louisa van den Boom
Michael J. Lentze
- Background. High-producer TGFβ1 genotypes are associated with severe lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), but studies combining IL-8, TNFα-, and TGFβ1(+genotype) levels and their impact on CF lung disease are scarce. Aim. Assessing the relationship between TGFβ1, IL-8, and TNF-α and lung disease in CF in an exacerbation-free interval. Methods. Twenty four patients delta F508 homozygous (median age 20.5 y, Shwachman score 75, FEV1(%) 83) and 8 controls (median age 27.5 y) were examined. TGFβ1 was assessed in serum and induced sputum (IS) by ELISA, for IL-8 and TNF-α by chemiluminescence in IS and whole blood. Genotyping was performed for TGFβ1 C−509T and T+869C utilizing RFLP. Results. TGFβ1 in IS (CF/controls median 76.5/59.1 pg/mL, P < 0.074) was higher in CF. There was a negative correlation between TGFβ1 in serum and lung function (LF) (FEV1 (r = −0.488, P = 0.025), MEF 25 (r = −0.425, P = 0.055), and VC (r = −0.572, P = 0.007)). Genotypes had no impact on TGFβ1 in IS, serum, and LF. In IS TGFβ1 correlated with IL-8 (r = 0.593, P < 0.007) and TNF-α (r = 0.536, P < 0.018) in patients colonized by bacteria with flagellin. Conclusion. TGFβ1 in serum not in IS correlates with LF. In patients colonized by bacteria with flagellin, TGFβ1 correlates with IL-8 and TNF-α in IS.
Treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients - updated recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO)
Oliver A. Cornely
Andrew J. Ullmann
- The Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO) here presents its updated recommendations for the treatment of documented fungal infections. Invasive fungal infections are a main cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy regimens. In recent years, new antifungal agents have been licensed, and agents already approved have been studied in new indications. The choice of the most appropriate antifungal treatment depends on the fungal species suspected or identified, the patient’s risk factors (e.g., length and depth of neutropenia), and the expected side effects. This guideline reviews the clinical studies that served as a basis for the following recommendations. All recommendations including the levels of evidence are summarized in tables to give the reader rapid access to the information.
Association of a common TLR-6 polymorphism with coronary artery disease – implications for healthy ageing?
Ralf R. Schumann
- Background: The pro-inflammatory status of the elderly triggers most of the age-related diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, the leading cause world wide of morbidity and death, is an inflammatory disease influenced by life-style and genetic host factors. Stimuli such as oxLDL or microbial ligands have been proposed to trigger inflammation leading to atherosclerosis. It has recently been shown that oxLDL activates immune cells via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/6 complex. Several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR system have been associated with atherosclerosis. To investigate the role of TLR-6 we analyzed the association of the TLR-6 SNP Pro249Ser with atherogenesis.
Results: Genotyping of two independent groups with CAD, as well as of healthy controls revealed a significant association of the homozygous genotype with a reduced risk for atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P = 0.02). In addition, we found a trend towards an association with the risk of restenosis after transluminal coronary angioplasty (odds ratio: 0.53, 95% CI 0.24-1.16, P = 0.12). In addition, first evidence is presented that the frequency of this protective genotype increases in a healthy population with age. Taken together, our results define a role for TLR-6 and its genetic variations in modulating the inflammatory response leading to atherosclerosis.
Conclusions: These results may lead to a better risk stratification, and potentially to an improved prophylactic treatment of high-risk populations. Furthermore, the protective effect of this polymorphism may lead to an increase of this genotype in the healthy elderly and may therefore be a novel genetic marker for the well-being during aging.
Interference with RUNX1/ETO leukemogenic function by cell-penetrating peptides targeting the NHR2 oligomerization domain
- The leukemia-associated fusion protein RUNX1/ETO is generated by the chromosomal translocation t(8;21) which appears in about 12% of all de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Essential for the oncogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO is the oligomerization of the chimeric fusion protein through the nervy homology region 2 (NHR2) within ETO. In previous studies, we have shown that the intracellular expression of peptides containing the NHR2 domain inhibits RUNX1/ETO oligomerization, thereby preventing cell proliferation and inducing differentiation of RUNX1/ETO transformed cells. Here, we show that introduction of a recombinant TAT-NHR2 fusion polypeptide into the RUNX1/ETO growth-dependent myeloid cell line Kasumi-1 results in decreased cell proliferation and increased numbers of apoptotic cells. This effect was highly specific and mediated by binding the TAT-NHR2 peptide to ETO sequences, as TAT-polypeptides containing the oligomerization domain of BCR did not affect cell proliferation or apoptosis in Kasumi-1 cells. Thus, the selective interference with NHR2-mediated oligomerization by peptides represents a challenging but promising strategy for the inhibition of the leukemogenic potential of RUNX1/ETO in t(8;21)-positive leukemia.
Functional Abstraction as a Method to Discover Knowledge in Gene Ontologies
- Computational analyses of functions of gene sets obtained in microarray analyses or by topical database searches are increasingly important in biology. To understand their functions, the sets are usually mapped to Gene Ontology knowledge bases by means of over-representation analysis (ORA). Its result represents the specific knowledge of the functionality of the gene set. However, the specific ontology typically consists of many terms and relationships, hindering the understanding of the ‘main story’. We developed a methodology to identify a comprehensibly small number of GO terms as “headlines” of the specific ontology allowing to understand all central aspects of the roles of the involved genes. The Functional Abstraction method finds a set of headlines that is specific enough to cover all details of a specific ontology and is abstract enough for human comprehension. This method exceeds the classical approaches at ORA abstraction and by focusing on information rather than decorrelation of GO terms, it directly targets human comprehension. Functional abstraction provides, with a maximum of certainty, information value, coverage and conciseness, a representation of the biological functions in a gene set plays a role. This is the necessary means to interpret complex Gene Ontology results thus strengthening the role of functional genomics in biomarker and drug discovery.
Protein signatures of oxidative stress response in a patient specific cell line model for autism
Andreas G. Chiocchetti
Christine M. Freitag
Johann W. Bauer
Sabine M. Klauck
- BACKGROUND: Known genetic variants can account for 10% to 20% of all cases with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Overlapping cellular pathomechanisms common to neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and in tissues of peripheral organs, such as immune dysregulation, oxidative stress and dysfunctions in mitochondrial and protein synthesis metabolism, were suggested to support the wide spectrum of ASD on unifying disease phenotype. Here, we studied in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) how an ASD-specific mutation in ribosomal protein RPL10 (RPL10[H213Q]) generates a distinct protein signature. We compared the RPL10[H213Q] expression pattern to expression patterns derived from unrelated ASD patients without RPL10[H213Q] mutation. In addition, a yeast rpl10 deficiency model served in a proof-of-principle study to test for alterations in protein patterns in response to oxidative stress.
METHODS: Protein extracts of LCLs from patients, relatives and controls, as well as diploid yeast cells hemizygous for rpl10, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially regulated spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Subsequently, Gene Ontology database (GO)-term enrichment and network analysis was performed to map the identified proteins into cellular pathways.
RESULTS: The protein signature generated by RPL10[H213Q] is a functionally related subset of the ASD-specific protein signature, sharing redox-sensitive elements in energy-, protein- and redox-metabolism. In yeast, rpl10 deficiency generates a specific protein signature, harboring components of pathways identified in both the RPL10[H213Q] subjects' and the ASD patients' set. Importantly, the rpl10 deficiency signature is a subset of the signature resulting from response of wild-type yeast to oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: Redox-sensitive protein signatures mapping into cellular pathways with pathophysiology in ASD have been identified in both LCLs carrying the ASD-specific mutation RPL10[H213Q] and LCLs from ASD patients without this mutation. At pathway levels, this redox-sensitive protein signature has also been identified in a yeast rpl10 deficiency and an oxidative stress model. These observations point to a common molecular pathomechanism in ASD, characterized in our study by dysregulation of redox balance. Importantly, this can be triggered by the known ASD-RPL10[H213Q] mutation or by yet unknown mutations of the ASD cohort that act upstream of RPL10 in differential expression of redox-sensitive proteins.
Long-Term Evaluation of ANKYLOS® Dental Implants, Part I: 20-Year Life Table Analysis of a Longitudinal Study of More Than 12,500 Implants
- Purpose: Scientiﬁc evidence is limited regarding the long-term (>10 years) outcomes of large enough numbers of implants (>500) to allow for reliable comparison of subgroups. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of dental implants placed in an active University Clinic setting and followed for up to 20 years.
Materials and Methods: Data documenting the implant placement, prosthetic reconstruction, and annual follow-up of patients treated at Frankfurt University were extracted from a Structured Query Language database and patients’ written records and evaluated statistically.
Results: Between April of 1991 and May of 2011, 12,737 ANKYLOS® (DENTSPLY Implants Manufacturing GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) implants were placed in 4,206 patients for a variety of clinical indications. The Kaplan–Meier cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 93.3% after 204 months. Most of the failures (198/1.6%) occurred during the ﬁrst year after implant placement and before prosthesis delivery. A signiﬁcantly higher (p < .001) number of implants placed in the mandible and in hard quality bone failed than those placed in the maxilla or in weak and normal quality bone. Female patients had signiﬁcantly higher CSRs (93.7% 204 months) than male patients (92.8% 204 months/p = .029). The implants showed low rates of peri-implant bone loss after 204 months (horizontal: 21 mm: 85.7%, vertical: 21 mm: 85.2%).
Conclusion: ANKYLOS dental implants followed for up to 20 years have high CSRs and low rates of peri-implant bone loss
Silicosis: geographic changes in research: an analysis employing density-equalizing mapping
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: A critical evaluation of scientific efforts is needed in times of modified evaluation criteria for academic personnel and institutions.
Methods: Using scientometric benchmark procedures and density-equalizing mapping, we analysed the global scientific efforts on "silicosis" of the last 92 years focusing on geographical changes within the last 30 years, specifying the most productive authors, institutions, countries and the most successful cooperations.
Results: The USA as the most productive supplier have established their position as center of international cooperation, followed in considerable distance by the United Kingdom, Germany and China. Asian countries, particularly China, catch up and are expected to excel the USA still in this decade.
Conclusion: The combination of scientometric procedures with density-equalizing mapping reveals a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Modified h-index, citationrate and impact factor have to be discussed critically due to distortion by bias of self-citation, language and co-authorship.
Visual Processing of Biological Motion in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Event Related Potential-Study
Christine M. Freitag
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion–recently discussed as a marker of social cognition–was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD.
Safety Evaluation of a Bioglass–Polylactic Acid Composite Scaffold Seeded with Progenitor Cells in a Rat Skull Critical-Size Bone Defect
Abeer M. El-Kady
Mahmoud S. Arbid
Bothaina M. Abd El-Hady
- Treating large bone defects represents a major challenge in traumatic and orthopedic surgery. Bone tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic option to improve the local bone healing response. In the present study tissue biocompatibility, systemic toxicity and tumorigenicity of a newly developed composite material consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and 20% or 40% bioglass (BG20 and BG40), respectively, were analyzed. These materials were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and tested in a rat calvarial critical size defect model for 3 months and compared to a scaffold consisting only of PLA. Serum was analyzed for organ damage markers such as GOT and creatinine. Leukocyte count, temperature and free radical indicators were measured to determine the degree of systemic inflammation. Possible tumor occurrence was assessed macroscopically and histologically in slides of liver, kidney and spleen. Furthermore, the concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and sodium oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed as indicators of tumor progression. Qualitative tissue response towards the implants and new bone mass formation was histologically investigated. BG20 and BG40, with or without progenitor cells, did not cause organ damage, long-term systemic inflammatory reactions or tumor formation. BG20 and BG40 supported bone formation, which was further enhanced in the presence of EPCs and MSCs.
This investigation reflects good biocompatibility of the biomaterials BG20 and BG40 and provides evidence that additionally seeding EPCs and MSCs onto the scaffold does not induce tumor formation.