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- Phascum cuspidatum SCHREB. ex HEDW. mit gezähnten Blattspitzen - eine „Herbizidform“? (2009)
- Im Rahmen einer Untersuchung über Phascum cuspidatum-Varietäten in Rheinhessen (Rheinland- Pfalz) wurde in Weinbergen eine bisher noch nicht bekannte Varietät mit gezähnten Blattspitzen gefunden. Aufgrund der Fundumstände wird vermutet, dass diese Varietät nicht genetisch festgelegt ist, sondern durch Wuchsstoff-Herbizide hervorgerufen wurde. Vergleichbare Herbizideinflüsse bei Blütenpflanzen sind bekannt.

- A preliminary study of the infraspecific taxa of Hypnum cupressiforme in Europe (2009)
- Field observations of mixed tufts demonstrate that Hpynum cupressiforme s.str. (excl. imponens, jutlandicum, andoi etc.) consists of several different genotypes which are no modifications. Within a study of herbarium material, the specimens were sorted into different phenotypes, for which names were applied from the literature. Within Hypnum cupressiforme, an expression with straight leaves (var. brevisetum Schimp.) was distinguished as well three with hamate leaves (var. uncinulatum Boul., var. cupressiforme and var. plumosum Mart.), which are differentiated by the size, number and form of alar cells and serrate viz. entire leaf tips. Var. subjulaceum is tentatively regarded as alpine variety of Hypnum lacunosum, var, filiforme is regarded as modification based on the oberservation of transitions.

- Zur Unterscheidung von Thamnobryum subserratum (Hook. ex Harv.) Nog. & Z. Iwats. und Thamnobryum neckeroides (Hook.) E. Lawton (2009)
- Die Unterschiede zwischen den jüngst in Europa nachgewiesenen Thamnobryum subserratum, welches unter diesem Namen aus Japan und als Th. allegheniense aus Nordamerika bekannt ist, sowie dem zuvor nur aus dem westlichen Nordamerika bekannten Thamnobryum neckeroides und dem heimischen Thamnobryum alopecurum sind nach der Literatur zusammengestellt und an Hand von Herbarmaterial illustriert. Die Variabilität von Thamnobryum alopecurum ist diskutiert.

- Contribution to the bryophyte flora of India: the Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats (2009)
- The bryophyte flora of the Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats of India is catalogued for the first time. The catalogue consists of 116 taxa (89 mosses, 27 liverworts), of which two are new for India (Plagiochila singularis, Vesicularia dubyana), 21 species are newly reported for Peninsular India (Clastobryopsis planula var. delicata, Barbella chrysonema, Brachymenium leptophyllum, Brachythecium rutabulum, Cololejeunea longifolia, Cyathodium tuberosum, Dicranella amplexans, Didymodon vinealis, Duthiella wallichi, Fabronia assamica, Haplocladium microphyllum, Himantocladium cyclophyllum, Homalia trichomanoides var. trichomanoides, Isopterygium serrulatum, Leskea perstricta, Lopholejeunea kashyapii, Leptotrichella assamica, Macromitrium turgidum, Rhynchostegium hookeri, Splachnobryum assamicum, Thamnobryum siamense) and another 14 species are new for Kerala State (Atrichum pallidum, Chionostomum rostratum, Claopodium prionophyllum, Cololejeunea lanciloba, Cyathophorum adiantum, Dicranella divaricata, Entodontopsis wightii, Fissidens pellucidus, Glossadelphus glossoides, Isopterygium lignicola, Leucodon secundus, Neckeropsis exserta, Plagiochila bischleriana, Timmiella anomala). The species Jungermannia obliquifolia has also been reported as a taxon new to India (Nair et al. in press (a) from this area.

- Papers on pragmasemantics (2009)
- Optimality theory as used in linguistics (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004; Smolensky & Legendre, 2006) and cognitive psychology (Gigerenzer & Selten, 2001) is a theoretical framework that aims to integrate constraint based knowledge representation systems, generative grammar, cognitive skills, and aspects of neural network processing. In the last years considerable progress was made to overcome the artificial separation between the disciplines of linguistic on the one hand which are mainly concerned with the description of natural language competences and the psychological disciplines on the other hand which are interested in real language performance. The semantics and pragmatics of natural language is a research topic that is asking for an integration of philosophical, linguistic, psycholinguistic aspects, including its neural underpinning. Especially recent work on experimental pragmatics (e.g. Noveck & Sperber, 2005; Garrett & Harnish, 2007) has shown that real progress in the area of pragmatics isn’t possible without using data from all available domains including data from language acquisition and actual language generation and comprehension performance. It is a conceivable research programme to use the optimality theoretic framework in order to realize the integration. Game theoretic pragmatics is a relatively young development in pragmatics. The idea to view communication as a strategic interaction between speaker and hearer is not new. It is already present in Grice' (1975) classical paper on conversational implicatures. What game theory offers is a mathematical framework in which strategic interaction can be precisely described. It is a leading paradigm in economics as witnessed by a series of Nobel prizes in the field. It is also of growing importance to other disciplines of the social sciences. In linguistics, its main applications have been so far pragmatics and theoretical typology. For pragmatics, game theory promises a firm foundation, and a rigor which hopefully will allow studying pragmatic phenomena with the same precision as that achieved in formal semantics. The development of game theoretic pragmatics is closely connected to the development of bidirectional optimality theory (Blutner, 2000). It can be easily seen that the game theoretic notion of a Nash equilibrium and the optimality theoretic notion of a strongly optimal form-meaning pair are closely related to each other. The main impulse that bidirectional optimality theory gave to research on game theoretic pragmatics stemmed from serious empirical problems that resulted from interpreting the principle of weak optimality as a synchronic interpretation principle. In this volume, we have collected papers that are concerned with several aspects of game and optimality theoretic approaches to pragmatics.

- On correctness of buffer implementations in a concurrent lambda calculus with futures (2009)
- Motivated by the question of correctness of a specific implementation of concurrent buffers in the lambda calculus with futures underlying Alice ML, we prove that concurrent buffers and handled futures can correctly encode each other. Correctness means that our encodings preserve and reflect the observations of may- and must-convergence, and as a consequence also yields soundness of the encodings with respect to a contextually defined notion of program equivalence. While these translations encode blocking into queuing and waiting, we also describe an adequate encoding of buffers in a calculus without handles, which is more low-level and uses busy-waiting instead of blocking. Furthermore we demonstrate that our correctness concept applies to the whole compilation process from high-level to low-level concurrent languages, by translating the calculus with buffers, handled futures and data constructors into a small core language without those constructs.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2009)
- We investigate methods and tools for analyzing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behavior of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2009)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus’ semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as nondeterminism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe’s proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.

- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2009)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in an extended lambda-calculus LS with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules; and to argue that an approximation calculus LA is equivalent to LS w.r.t. the contextual preorder, which enables the proof tool of simulation. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus L comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variable-binding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof of correctness of transformations, and that the simple calculus LS, the calculus L, and the calculus LA all have an equivalent contextual preorder.