2012 : Aus Wissen wird Gesundheit [Jahresbericht des Klinikums der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main 2012]
Novel therapeutic venues for glioblastoma: novel rising preclinical treatment opportunities
Markus David Siegelin
- High grade gliomas, including anaplastic glioma WHO grade III and glioblastoma WHO IV (GBM), carry a dismal prognosis. Taking all nowadays-available therapeutics options, including radiation, chemotherapy and surgery, for GBM into consideration the prognosis after initial diagnosis is about 12 month. Despite this bad prognosis, researchers gained a tremendous insight into the molecular and genetic signatures of low and high grade gliomas. Several different subtypes of GBM were demonstrated with respect to their genetic background. These genetic alterations include p53 mutation in secondary GBMs and EGFR amplification in primary GBMs, respectively. Very recently, great excitement was raised after the discovery of IDH1 mutation in low-grade gliomas and secondary GBMs. This discovery is of great significance since it allows further categorizing of GBMs and is helpful in distinguishing low-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic adjacent brain tissue. Despite all this progress there is an urgent need for fresh additional therapeutic strategies. In addition to the identification of novel therapeutic regimens it is of utmost importance to gain an understanding about the molecular mechanisms on how GBMs manage to evade from almost any anti-cancer treatment regimen. In experimental models of glioblastoma there are a number of novel therapeutic regimens that exhibited promising results. These novel therapeutics include, but are not limited to: Apoptosis-based therapeutics (Tumor necrosis factor alpha related apoptosis inducing ligand, TRAIL), tyrosinkinase-inhibitors, Heat-shock-protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors, polyphenols, novel drug combinations and intracranial application based strategies. This chapter will primarily review and focus on molecular mechanisms of resistance in GBM and rising new therapeutic venues for high-grade gliomas. High-grade gliomas are a group of primary heterogenous tumors of which glioblastoma World Health Organisation, WHO IV (GBM), is the most common one. Once the diagnosis of GBM is made, the average survival time is approximately 12-15 month (Hegi, Diserens et al., 2005). Treatment usually consists of temozolomide (commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of GBM, TMZ), radiation (either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics) and surgery (Hegi, Diserens et al., 2005)...
Application of the liposuction techniques and principles in specific body areas and pathologies
Jorge A. D’Angelo
- The buttocks have been a symbol of attraction, sexuality and eroticism since ancient times and therefore, they have an important role in defining the posterior body contour. More and more people are talking about and understand the meaning and the role that buttocks play in modeling and physical beauty. The three dimensional gluteoplasty (3-DGP) is an innovative technique that allows us to change volume, shape and firmness, not only in the buttocks but also in the adjacent regions such as the thighs and trochanters, becoming an ideal tool to answer the frequent reasons of consultation of our patients about this particular area of the body: ...
Use of radiobiological modeling in treatment plan evaluation and optimization of prostate cancer radiotherapy
Bengt K. Lind
- There are many tools available that are used to evaluate a radiotherapy treatment plan, such as isodose distribution charts, dose volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum and mean doses of the dose distributions as well as DVH point dose constraints. All the already mentioned evaluation tools are dosimetric only without taking into account the radiobiological characteristics of tumors or OARs. It has been demonstrated that although competing treatment plans might have similar mean, maximum or minimum doses they may have significantly different clinical outcomes (Mavroidis et al. 2001). For performing a more complete treatment plan evaluation and comparison the complication-free tumor control probability (P+) and the biologically effective uniform dose (D ) have been proposed (Källman et al. 1992a, Mavroidis et al. 2000). The D concept denotes that any two dose distributions within a target or OAR are equivalent if they produce the same probability for tumor control or normal tissue complication, respectively (Mavroidis et al. 2001)...
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2
- 1. Introduction: The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by degeneration of cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. The degenerative process may additionally involves the ponto- medullar systems, pyramidal tracts, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, peripheral nerves (ADCA I) and the retina (ADCA II), or can be limited to the cerebellum (ADCA III) (Harding et al., 1993). The most common of these dominantly inherited autosomal ataxias, ADCA I, includes many Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCA) subtypes, some of which are caused by pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region on the mutated gene. Such is the case for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3/MJD, SCA6, SCA7, SCA17 and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) (Matilla et al., 2006). Among the almost 30 SCAs, the variant SCA2 is the second most prevalent subtype worldwide, only surpassed by SCA3 (Schöls et al., 2004; Matilla et al., 2006; Auburger, 2011)...
Adaptation of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy in a 29 Year Old Female Patient with Chronic Major Depression and Antecedent Dysthymic Disorder Who Switched Under Combined SSRI/CBASP Outpatient Treatment into Bipolarity: A Case Report
The clinical examination of children, adolescents and their families
Thomas Jakob Lempp
Daleen de Lange
Daniel Matthias Radeloff
Über die neuere Entwicklung der Humoralphysiologie : Rede zum Rektoratswechsel am 7. Nov. 1925
Wenn der Partner an einer progredienten, potenziell lebensbedrohlichen Erkrankung leidet : Fragen zur Entscheidungsfindung für eine In-vitro-Fertilisation mit ICSI