Interplay between endothelin and erythropoietin in astroglia: the role in protection against hypoxia
Christoph H. Gleiter
- We show that, under in vitro conditions, the vulnerability of astroglia to hypoxia is reflected by alterations in endothelin (ET)-1 release and capacity of erythropoietin (EPO) to regulate ET-1 levels. Exposure of cells to 24 h hypoxia did not induce changes in ET-1 release, while 48–72 h hypoxia resulted in increase of ET-1 release from astrocytes that could be abolished by EPO. The endothelin receptor type A (ETA) antagonist BQ123 increased extracellular levels of ET-1 in human fetal astroglial cell line (SV-FHAS). The survival and proliferation of rat primary astrocytes, neural precursors, and neurons upon hypoxic conditions were increased upon administration of BQ123. Hypoxic injury and aging affected the interaction between the EPO and ET systems. Under hypoxia EPO decreased ET-1 release from astrocytes, while ETA receptor blockade enhanced the expression of EPO mRNA and EPO receptor in culture-aged rat astroglia. The blockade of ETA receptor can increase the availability of ET-1 to the ETB receptor and can potentiate the neuroprotective effects of EPO. Thus, the new therapeutic use of combined administration of EPO and ETA receptor antagonists during hypoxia-associated neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) can be suggested.
Indication for 'Over the Scope' (OTS)-Clip vs. Covered Self-Expanding Metal Stent (cSEMS) Is Unequal in Upper Gastrointestinal Leakage: Results from a Retrospective Head-to-Head Comparison
Wolf O. Bechstein
Jörg G. Albert
- Background: Intestinal perforation or leakage increases morbidity and mortality of surgical and endoscopic interventions. We identified criteria for use of full-covered, extractable self-expanding metal stents (cSEMS) vs. ‘Over the scope’-clips (OTSC) for leak closure.
Methods: Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for postoperative leakage, endoscopic perforation, or spontaneous rupture of the upper gastrointestinal tract between 2006 and 2013 were identified at four tertiary endoscopic centers. Technical success, outcome (e.g. duration of hospitalization, in-hospital mortality), and complications were assessed and analyzed with respect to etiology, size and location of leakage.
Results: Of 106 patients (male: 75 (71%), female: 31 (29%); age (mean ± SD): 62.5 ± 1.3 years, 72 (69%) were treated by cSEMS and 34 (31%) by OTSC. For cSEMS vs. OTSC, mean treatment duration was 41.1 vs. 25 days, p<0.001, leakage size 10 (1-50) vs. 5 (1-30) mm (median (range)), and complications were observed in 68% vs. 8.8%, p<0.001, respectively. Clinical success for primary interventional treatment was observed in 29/72 (40%) vs. 24/34 (70%, p = 0.006), and clinical success at the end of follow-up was 46/72 (64%) vs. 29/34 (85%) for patients treated by cSEMS vs. OTSC; p = 0.04.
Conclusion: OTSC is preferred in small-sized lesions and in perforation caused by endoscopic interventions, cSEMS in patients with concomitant local infection or abscess. cSEMS is associated with a higher frequency of complications. Therefore, OTSC might be preferred if technically feasible. Indication criteria for cSEMS vs. OTSC vary and might impede design of randomized studies.
Primary Biliary Acids Inhibit Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Entry into Human Hepatoma Cells Expressing the Sodium-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (NTCP)
Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira
Michael P. Manns
Cláudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira
Thomas von Hahn
- Background: The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is both a key bile acid (BA) transporter mediating uptake of BA into hepatocytes and an essential receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV). In this study we aimed to characterize to what extent and through what mechanism BA affect HDV cell entry.
Methods: HuH-7 cells stably expressing NTCP (HuH-7/NTCP) and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were infected with in vitro generated HDV particles. Infectivity in the absence or presence of compounds was assessed using immunofluorescence staining for HDV antigen, standard 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assays and quantitative PCR.
Results: Addition of primary conjugated and unconjugated BA resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the number of infected cells while secondary, tertiary and synthetic BA had a lesser effect. This effect was observed both in HuH-7/NTCP and in PHH. Other replication cycle steps such as replication and particle assembly and release were unaffected. Moreover, inhibitory BA competed with a fragment from the large HBV envelope protein for binding to NTCP-expressing cells. Conversely, the sodium/BA-cotransporter function of NTCP seemed not to be required for HDV infection since infection was similar in the presence or absence of a sodium gradient across the plasma membrane. When chenodeoxycolic acid (15 mg per kg body weight) was administered to three chronically HDV infected individuals over a period of up to 16 days there was no change in serum HDV RNA.
Conclusions: Primary BA inhibit NTCP-mediated HDV entry into hepatocytes suggesting that modulation of the BA pool may affect HDV infection of hepatocytes.
Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices - how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling
Juliana J. Petersen
Michael A. Paulitsch
Steffi Gerlinde Riedel-Heller
Hendrik van den Bussche
- Background: In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views.
Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice).
Results: The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice.
Conclusions: This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German primary care practices, the implementation of structured care and counseling could be improved, particularly by helping patients set specific goals, coordinating care, and arranging follow-up contacts. Studies evaluating chronic care should take into consideration that a patient’s assessment is associated not only with practice-level factors, but also with individual, patient-level factors.
Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89818205.
Is contrast medium osmolality a causal factor for contrast-induced nephropathy?
Andreas M. Bucher
Carlo N. De Cecco
U. Joseph Schoepf
Felix G. Meinel
Aleksander W. Krazinski
James V. Spearman
Andrew D. McQuiston
Thomas J. Vogl
Richard W. Katzberg
- The exact pathophysiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is not fully clarified, yet the osmotic characteristics of contrast media (CM) have been a significant focus in many investigations of CIN. Osmotic effects of CM specific to the kidney include transient decreases in blood flow, filtration fraction, and glomerular filtration rate. Potentially significant secondary effects include an osmotically induced diuresis with a concomitant dehydrating effect. Clinical experiences that have compared the occurrence of CIN between the various classes of CM based on osmolality have suggested a much less than anticipated advantage, if any, with a lower osmolality. Recent animal experiments actually suggest that induction of a mild osmotic diuresis in association with iso-osmolar agents tends to offset potentially deleterious renal effects of high viscosity-mediated intratubular CM stagnation.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates dendritic cell function: focus on non-migratory effects in vitro and in vivo
Heinfried Hermann Radeke
- Dendritic cells (DCs) are the cutting edge in innate and adaptive immunity. The major functions of these antigen-presenting cells are the capture, endosomal processing and presentation of antigens, providing them an exclusive ability to provoke adaptive immune responses and to induce and control tolerance. Immature DCs capture and process antigens, migrate towards secondary lymphoid organs where they present antigens to naive T cells in a well-synchronized sequence of procedures referred to as maturation. Indeed, recent research indicated that sphingolipids are modulators of essential steps in DC homeostasis. It has been recognized that sphingolipids not only modulate the development of DC subtypes from precursor cells but also influence functional activities of DCs such as antigen capture, and cytokine profiling. Thus, it is not astonishing that sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolism play a substantial role in inflammatory diseases that are modulated by DCs. Here we highlight the function of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) on DC homeostasis and the role of S1P and S1P metabolism in inflammatory diseases.
Controlled intramyocardial release of engineered chemokines by biodegradable hydrogels as a treatment approach of myocardial infarction
Birgit K. Kramp
Tilman M. Hackeng
Elisa A. Liehn
Rory R. Koenen
- Myocardial infarction (MI) induces a complex inflammatory immune response, followed by the remodelling of the heart muscle and scar formation. The rapid regeneration of the blood vessel network system by the attraction of hematopoietic stem cells is beneficial for heart function. Despite the important role of chemokines in these processes, their use in clinical practice has so far been limited by their limited availability over a long time-span in vivo. Here, a method is presented to increase physiological availability of chemokines at the site of injury over a defined time-span and simultaneously control their release using biodegradable hydrogels. Two different biodegradable hydrogels were implemented, a fast degradable hydrogel (FDH) for delivering Met-CCL5 over 24 hrs and a slow degradable hydrogel (SDH) for a gradual release of protease-resistant CXCL12 (S4V) over 4 weeks. We demonstrate that the time-controlled release using Met-CCL5-FDH and CXCL12 (S4V)-SDH suppressed initial neutrophil infiltration, promoted neovascularization and reduced apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. Thus, we were able to significantly preserve the cardiac function after MI. This study demonstrates that time-controlled, biopolymer-mediated delivery of chemokines represents a novel and feasible strategy to support the endogenous reparatory mechanisms after MI and may compliment cell-based therapies.
Enhancement of Intratumoral Chemotherapy with Cisplatin with or without Microwave Ablation and Lipiodol. Future Concept for Local Treatment in Lung Cancer
Thomas J. Vogl
J. Francis Turner
- Novel therapies for lung cancer are being explored nowadays with local therapies being the tip of the arrow. Intratumoral chemotherapy administration and local microwave ablation have been investigated in several studies. It has been previously proposed that lipiodol has the ability to modify the microenvironment matrix. In our current study we investigated this theory in BALBC mice. In total 160 BALBC mice were divided in eight groups: a) control, b) cisplatin, c) microwave, d) microwave and lipiodol, e) cisplatin and lipiodol, f) microwave and cisplatin, g) lipiodol and h) lipiodol, cisplatin and microwave. Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines (106) were injected into the right back leg of each mouse. After the 8th day, when the tumor volume was about 100mm3 the therapy application was initiated, once per week for four weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for each tumor when a mouse died or when sacrificed if they were still alive by the end of the experiment (8-Canal multifunctional spool; NORAS MRI products, Gmbh, Germany). Imaging and survival revealed efficient tumor apoptosis for the groups b,c,d,e and f. However; severe toxicity was observed in group h and no follow up was available for this group after the second week of therapy administration. Lipiodol in its current form does assist in a more efficient way the distribution of cisplatin, as the microwave apoptotic effect. Future modification of lipiodol might provide a more efficient method of therapy enhancement. Combination of drug and microwave ablation is possible and has an efficient apoptotic effect.
Association of myeloperoxidase with total and cardiovascular mortality in individuals undergoing coronary angiography - the LURIC study
Marcus E. Kleber
Bernhard R. Winkelmann
Bernhard O. Boehm
- Background: The phagocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) acts as a front-line defender against microorganisms. However, increased MPO levels have been found to be associated with complex and calcified atherosclerotic lesions and incident cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate a predictive role of MPO, a biomarker of inflammation and oxidative stress, for total and cardiovascular mortality in patients referred to coronary angiography.
Methods and results: MPO plasma concentrations along with eight MPO polymorphisms were determined in 3036 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study (median follow-up 7.75 years). MPO concentrations were positively associated with age, diabetes, smoking, markers of systemic inflammation (interleukin-6, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A) and vascular damage (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) but negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors MPO concentrations in the highest versus the lowest quartile were associated with a 1.34-fold risk (95% CI: 1.09–1.67) for total mortality. In the adjusted model the hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality in the highest MPO quartile was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.07–1.88). Five MPO polymorphisms were positively associated with MPO concentrations but not with mortality. Using Mendelian randomization, we did not obtain evidence for a causal association of MPO with either total or cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions: MPO concentrations but not genetic variants at the MPO locus are independently associated with risk for total and cardiovascular mortality in coronary artery disease patients.
Selective Lentiviral Gene Delivery to CD133-Expressing Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells
N. Sumru Bayin
Aram S. Modrek
Christian J. Buchholz
Moses V. Chao
Dimitris G. Placantonakis
- Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly primary brain malignancy. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into tumor lineages, are believed to cause tumor recurrence due to their resistance to current therapies. A subset of GSCs is marked by cell surface expression of CD133, a glycosylated pentaspan transmembrane protein. The study of CD133-expressing GSCs has been limited by the relative paucity of genetic tools that specifically target them. Here, we present CD133-LV, a lentiviral vector presenting a single chain antibody against CD133 on its envelope, as a vehicle for the selective transduction of CD133-expressing GSCs. We show that CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133+ human GSCs in dose-dependent manner and that transduced cells maintain their stem-like properties. The transduction efficiency of CD133-LV is reduced by an antibody that recognizes the same epitope on CD133 as the viral envelope and by shRNA-mediated knockdown of CD133. Conversely, the rate of transduction by CD133-LV is augmented by overexpression of CD133 in primary human GBM cultures. CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133-expressing cells in intracranial human GBM xenografts in NOD.SCID mice, but spares normal mouse brain tissue, neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells and primary human astrocytes. Our findings indicate that CD133-LV represents a novel tool for the selective genetic manipulation of CD133-expressing GSCs, and can be used to answer important questions about how these cells contribute to tumor biology and therapy resistance.