Psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - application of a theoretical framework
Anne Christine Julia Merkt
- The term compensation is widely used in every-day language, in psychological research, and also discussed in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have looked at psychological compensation in ADHD systematically and theory based. Compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent or the acquisition of new skills. Based on the application of a theoretical framework (Bäckman & Dixon, 1992) to ADHD, I developed the following aims: (1) To reassess the awareness of deficits in ADHD and (2) to explore psychological compensation in a group with ADHD that accomplishes high achievement.
The results of Study 1 showed that children with ADHD did not overestimate their own skills compared to a group matched for academic achievement. In Study 2, college students with ADHD reported higher achievement motivation compared to college students without ADHD. Furthermore, results indicated that women with ADHD compensate by adopting compensatory effort and obsessive-compulsive behavior. Study 3 showed that female college students compensate for possible deficits in solving a flanker task by being overly cautious, which may reflect more obsessive-compulsive behavior.
The studies are discussed within the framework of psychological compensation. They add to the understanding of compensation in ADHD by (1) the reassessment of awareness of deficits in ADHD by including a group without ADHD but with low achievement, and by (2) suggesting that overly cautious behavior could be a form of psychological compensation in females with ADHD enabling them to enter college, leading to a late diagnosis and to good performance in cognitive tasks (i.e., flanker task).
Limitations are, that I did not test all components of the theoretical framework in one study and that I did not include adults with ADHD that did not enter college in Study 2 and 3 to test if achievement motivation or overly cautious behavior explains why some adults with ADHD gain admittance to higher education and show good performance in cognitive tasks and others do not.
Studies on the focusing performance of a Gabor lens depending on nonneutral plasma properties
- The concept of the Gabor lens goes back to an idea by Dennis Gabor, who proposed a magnetron-type trap as an effective diverging lens for electron beams (collecting lens for positive ion beams).
Electrons confined inside the lens volume by orthogonal magnetic and electric fields, create an electric space charge field that causes a radial symmetric focusing force on an ion beam passing through the lens volume.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, a new design of this lens type as well as numerical models to describe the confined plasma cloud have been developed at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt).
Thanks to an improved understanding of the plasma confinement as a function of the external fields, two lenses have successfully been tested for low beam currents and remain in operation.
In the scope of this work, the performance of a prototype Gabor lens for the transport of intense, i.e. space charge dominated ion beams, was investigated at the High Current Test Injector (HOSTI) of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH for the first time.
To ensure an optimal focusing performance of the Gabor lens a homogeneous and stable electron confinement is required. Therefore, new non-interceptive diagnostic methods were developed to investigate the parameters and state of the confined nonneutral plasma column as a function of the external fields.
An essential part of the studies was the time-resolved diagnostic of an occurring plasma instability and the determination of the electron temperature via optical spectroscopy. The latter necessitated the detailed investigation of atomic excitation as well as the measurement of optical-emission cross sections.
A comparison of the results from both experiments i.e. the beam transport measurements at GSI and the diagnostic experiments performed at IAP concerning the plasma state, gave first indications of possible interaction processes between the nonneutral plasma and the ion beam.
The phylogeny of the genus Gazella and the phylogeography and population genetics of arabian species
- Biodiversity is caused by a fundamental evolutionary process: speciation. When species can spread into new habitats and are allowed to colonize new ecological niches, speciation can become accelerated and is then called radiation. This can happen, e.g., when formerly separated land masses become connected. A prime example of such a scenario is the Arabian Peninsula that connects Africa and Asia since the Oligocene (approx. 30 Ma ago). Since then, the peninsula promoted several faunal exchanges between both continents. The mammalian genus Gazella is an excellent candidate for investigating this faunal exchange. Species are distributed on both, the African and Asian continent as well as on the Arabian Peninsula that is located in between. The aim of my thesis was to cast new light on the evolution and speciation of the genus and, furthermore, to evaluate the currently problematic taxonomy to infer suggestions for improved conservation actions for threatened gazelle species. Therefore, I investigated the taxon Gazella genetically and identified factors that promoted the speciation of this diverse genus. I assessed intraspecific genetic variability for species that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula to infer the past demography of those species and to estimate the history of species divergence and past population parameters.
In the first part of my thesis I inferred a mitochondrial phylogeny based on cytochrome b gene sequences using samples of all nine extant species of Gazella and also of closely related taxa (chapter 2). Besides the monophyly of the genus Gazella two reciprocally monophyletic clades were detected that evolved in allopatry: one predominantly African and one predominantly Asian clade. Within both clades species pairs could be inferred with species being ecologically adapted to different habitats: one species is a desert-dweller (probably the ancestral character state combination), while the other one is adapted to rather mountainous and humid habitats. These adaptations also correlate with the behavior of the species with the mountainous forms being sedentary, territorial and living in small groups and the desert forms being migratory, non-territorial and living in larger herds.
The second part of my thesis focuses on the Arabian gazelle species. In a study about G. subgutturosa I could show that the Arabian form G. marica (sand gazelle)—previously recognized as a subspecies of G. subgutturosa—is genetically distinct from the nominate form (chapter 3). Moreover, a phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome b gene sequences revealed a polyphyly of G. subgutturosa and G. marica with sand gazelles being more closely related to G. leptoceros and G. cuvieri of North Africa. Consequently, I suggested the restoration to full species level for G. marica corroborating earlier conservation practices of breeding both taxa separately in captivity.
In case of G. dorcas such a genetic differentiation could not be detected (chapter 4). Despite the large distribution range from Mali in the west to Saudi Arabia in the east only low genetic variation was detectable in mitochondrial sequence data. Statistically parsimony network analyses revealed pronounced haplotype sharing across regions. Using a coalescence approach I observed a steep population decline that started about 25,000 years ago and which is still ongoing. The decline could be correlated with human hunting activities in the Sahara. Hence, hunting of G. dorcas (already in ancient times) had a much larger impact on gazelle populations than previously thought and even led to the extinction of the Arabian form of G. dorcas.
In chapter 5 of my thesis I provided a rigorous test to genetically distinguish between the potential species G. gazella and G. arabica. Previously recognized as a single species mitochondrial sequence analyses provided first hints for the separation of both taxa. But without the investigation of nuclear loci the observed pattern could also be the result of male biased dispersal combined with female philopatry. Therefore, I amplified mitochondrial sequence markers and nuclear microsatellite loci for both taxa and found support for the earlier view of two separate species. No signs of recurrent gene flow could be detected between neighboring populations of G. arabica and G. gazella. The split of both species could be estimated one million years ago and the recommendation of breeding both taxa separately in captivity for conservation purposes is fully justified.
Several populations of G. arabica suffer from a severe decline. In chapter 6 I asked whether the population occurring on the Farasan archipelago—being at stable individual numbers for decades—may serve as potential source for future reintroduction on the Arabian mainland, although the gazelles show a reduced body size. Analyzing the genetic differentiation of Farasan gazelles, a genetic cluster could be inferred being endemic to the archipelago. However, only approx. 70% of Farasan individuals were assigned to this specific cluster, while the others showed at least intermediate or even complete assignment to the mainland cluster. This indicates ongoing introgression that is probably mediated by human translocations of gazelles from and onto the islands. Considering the uniform dwarfism of Farasan gazelles, reasons for the smaller body size might be direct consequences of resource limitations, i.e., phenotypic plasticity. If the population decline on the mainland will hold on Farasan gazelles could serve as stocks for future reintroductions.
A literary occupation: responses of German writers in service in occupied Europe
- This thesis examines the literary output of German servicemen writers writing from the occupied territories of Europe in the period 1940-1944. Whereas literary-biographical studies and appraisals of the more significant individual writers have been written, and also a collective assessment of the Eastern front writers, this thesis addresses in addition the German literary responses in France and Greece, as being then theatres of particular cultural/ideological attention. Original papers of the writer Felix Hartlaub were consulted by the author at the Deutsches Literatur Archiv (DLA) at Marbach. Original imprints of the wartime works of the subject writers are referred to throughout, and citations are from these. As all the published works were written under conditions of wartime censorship and, even where unpublished, for fear of discovery written in oblique terms, the texts were here examined for subliminal authorial intention. The critical focus of the thesis is on literary quality: on aesthetic niveau, on applied literary form, and on integrity of authorial intention. The thesis sought to discover: (1) the extent of the literary output in book-length forms. (2) the auspices and conditions under which this literary output was produced. (3) the publication history and critical reception of the output. The thesis took into account, inter alia: (1) occupation policy as it pertained locally to the writers’ remit; (2) the ethical implications of this for the writers; (3) the writers’ literary stratagems for negotiating the constraints of censorship.
Improving statistical machine translation with linguistic information
- Statistical machine translation (SMT) should benefit from linguistic information to improve performance but current state-of-the-art models rely purely on data-driven models. There are several reasons why prior efforts to build linguistically annotated models have failed or not even been attempted. Firstly, the practical implementation often requires too much work to be cost effective. Where ad-hoc implementations have been created, they impose too strict constraints to be of general use. Lastly, many linguistically-motivated approaches are language dependent, tackling peculiarities in certain languages that do not apply to other languages. This thesis successfully integrates linguistic information about part-of-speech tags, lemmas and phrase structure to improve MT quality. The major contributions of this thesis are: 1. We enhance the phrase-based model to incorporate linguistic information as additional factors in the word representation. The factored phrase-based model allows us to make use of different types of linguistic information in a systematic way within the predefined framework. We show how this model improves translation by as much as 0.9 BLEU for small German-English training corpora, and 0.2 BLEU for larger corpora. 2. We extend the factored model to the factored template model to focus on improving reordering. We show that by generalising translation with part-of-speech tags, we can improve performance by as much as 1.1 BLEU on a small French- English system. 3. Finally, we switch from the phrase-based model to a syntax-based model with the mixed syntax model. This allows us to transition from the word-level approaches using factors to multiword linguistic information such as syntactic labels and shallow tags. The mixed syntax model uses source language syntactic information to inform translation. We show that the model is able to explain translation better, leading to a 0.8 BLEU improvement over the baseline hierarchical phrase-based model for a small German-English task. Also, the model requires only labels on continuous source spans, it is not dependent on a tree structure, therefore, other types of syntactic information can be integrated into the model. We experimented with a shallow parser and see a gain of 0.5 BLEU for the same dataset. Training with more training data, we improve translation by 0.6 BLEU (1.3 BLEU out-of-domain) over the hierarchical baseline. During the development of these three models, we discover that attempting to rigidly model translation as linguistic transfer process results in degraded performance. However, by combining the advantages of standard SMT models with linguistically-motivated models, we are able to achieve better translation performance. Our work shows the importance of balancing the specificity of linguistic information with the robustness of simpler models.
Investigation of structural and functional properties of the betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum by using infrared spectroscopy
- In this study, the structural and functional properties of the Na+/Betaine symporter BetP were investigated upon K+-induced activation. BetP regulates transport activity dependent on the amount of associated anionic lipids and the cytoplasmic K+-concentration. For this purpose, FTIR spectroscopy was implemented as a non-perturbing biophysical method which shed light on how the membrane lipids contribute to the molecular mechanisms of activation and regulatory response of BetP.
Transylvanian Saxons' migration from Romania to Germany: the formation of a 'return' diaspora?
Lucia Diana Paul
- Processes and patterns of migration on a global scale have changed in profound ways during the last two decades (Smith and King, 2012). In the European context, this is exemplified by transformations to the traditional mobility patterns from East to West Europe (Koser and Lutz, 1998), with migrants more likely to be involved in temporary circular and transnational mobility (Favell, 2008). Since the end of the Second World War, historical and political events in Europe have facilitated the mobility of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe to Germany. Subsequently, the fall of the Iron Curtain has permitted unrestrained East-West movements, which resulted in mass migrations towards the West and diaspora fragments in the East. However, after settlement in the West, ethnic Germans have also been absorbed within wider temporary and transnational movements (Koser, 2007). Within this context, this thesis examines the post-migratory lives of three generations of Transylvanian Saxons in Germany by exploring the cultural, social, economic and political dimensions of this community. This thesis aims to contribute to on-going academic debates about diasporas by explicitly responding to Hoerder s (2002) call for more studies on ethnic German diasporas. It shows that Transylvanian Saxons, who relocated to the ancestral homeland, do not disrupt identities and lives forged in diaspora, but rather, they negotiate complex identities and belongings in relation to both home and homeland . It reveals a double diaspora and the necessity to perceive identity and diaspora as dynamic processes and constantly evolving in relation to time, space and place. This double diasporic allegiance in the case of the Transylvanian Saxons suggests interrogating the formation of a return diaspora and its importance for processes of international migration.
The major works of Rudolf Bahro
Gordon W. Smith
- This thesis represents an original contribution to research in offering a comprehensive analysis of the work of Rudolf Bahro. The thesis combines a study of Bahro's work as a prominent opposition figure in the German Democratic Republic in the 1970s with an assessment of his career as an outspoken member of the West German Green Party in the 1980s. The core of the thesis is devoted to a thorough reappraisal of Bahro's major critique of 'actually existing socialism' in East Germany, Die Alternative - Zyr Kraik des real existierenden Sozialismus. Bahro's harsh critique of the SED is explored within the context of the GDR's historical development and Eastern European Marxist revisionism in general. A critical analysis of the extensive secondary literature which now surrounds this work is undertaken to discover how far existing interpretations offer an accurate assessment of Die Alternative. A further section compares for the first time the differing reception of Bahro's study in both East and West Germany. Bahro's earliest essays as an editor of the GDR journal Forum and his first critical work ... die nicht mit den Wolfen heulen are discussed as a key to establishing the particular nature of his opposition. Later chapters trace the development of Sahro's theories and discuss his contribution to the peace and ecology debates in West Germany in the 1980s. Bahro's efforts to achieve a synthesis of the interests of ecology and socialism are explored and his 'Fundamentalist' version of Green politics is discussed within the context of the Green Party's early development. The thesis concludes with an assessment of the increasingly radical utopianism permeating Bahro's writings and offers a critical examination of his attempts to infuse the ecology debate with a spiritual dimension, as detailed in Logik der Rettung, his chief work written in West Germany.
A linguistic approach to intuition in translation
- In literary translation 'correctness' is rarely ratified by linguistic rules; it is more often a question of what a sensitive translator feels to be correct. Intuition will therefore play a major part. This intuition is seen here neither as instinctive reaction prompted by experience, nor as native competence, but as an inquiring, self-moderating influence inspired by the language itself. It is treated in this respect as an informed intuition, that is, as having a linguistic base for sensitive judgement. This assumes that the literary translator is both a creative writer and his own critical reader as well as a fine judge of language potential. This line is applied to translating meaning and sense, transferring the very language, imitating the form and style, re-creating the features, and above all, to capturing those unique qualities of the original. After dealing with word-accuracy, the question of literary input demanded by form and style is examined. The treatment of language used for effect features in a section on Kafka. The merits and the problems of translating dialect as dialect for its own sake are looked at closely and in a positive way as are the possibilities of reproducing 'oddities' of language. The immense task of translating the language of Joyce ('Ulysses ') with all its vagaries and skilful manipulation of words is examined for the possibility of providing an accurate copy. The ultimate test of reproducing a uniqueness of artistic creation together with the profound thought which inspired it, is reserved for a section on Hopkins. While it is recognized that, owing to the constrictions imposed by the extreme and sensitive use of language, no translation can fully include all that there is in his poems, it might be possible to capture enough of their essence to give an impression of a 'German' Hopkins at work. A major objective throughout is the establishment of a linguistic base for the part played by intuition in literary translation.
The German government's Aussiedler policy : 1988-1992
- The political reform process that gathered momentum in eastern and south-eastern Europe during 1987 and 1988 was accompanied by a growing exodus of ethnic and cultural Germans (Aussiedler) who sought resettlement in West Germany. The Aussiedler were welcomed enthusiastically by Chancellor Kohl as fellow German compatriots who would be a benefit to the economy. The opposition SPD voiced its concerns over the government's motives for maintaining the open-door Aussiedler immigration policy and over the likely integration difficulties. The government sought to respond to public concerns in 1988 by reassessing its Aussiedler policy. It decided firstly to continue the open-door Aussiedler policy (as a constitutional right), secondly to implement an Aussiedler integration assistance programme and thirdly to seek to persuade potential Aussiedler not to emigrate to West Germany. The thesis adopts a multi-disciplinary approach to analysing the government's open-door Aussiedler policy during the period 1988 to 1992, formulating the political and public concerns over the Aussiedler policy into three main research questions. These questions analyse: 1. Whether the government's declared motives for maintaining the open-door Aussiedler policy were justified. 2. Whether the government's optimism over the ability of Aussiedler to successfully integrate into the employment market was justified. 3. Whether the government's policy of seeking to persuade potential Soviet Aussiedler to remain in their country, by negotiating on the re-creation of an autonomous German Volga republic, was viable. The findings for these three main questions allow for an assessment of government Aussiedler policy for the period 1988 - 1992. The thesis argues that there was evidence during the period of study to support the argument that the Aussiedler group was to a degree instrumentalised by the government to serve its own political, economic and nationalistic purposes. Government confidence concerning Aussiedler employment integration proved to be too optimistic, as Aussiedler had specific causes of unemployment. Furthermore, the attempt to negotiate the re-creation of an autonomous German republic in Russia was unsuccessful. The exodus has continued.