Studies on the Xeniidae of the Red Sea : their ecology, physiology, taxonomy and phylogeny / by H. A. F. Gohar (Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar). [Mit arab. Zsfassung]
Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar
Glorification of violence in british films depicting football hooliganism
(Non)Retroflexivity of Slavic Affricates and Its Motivation : Evidence from Polish and Czech <č>
- The goal of this paper is two-fold. First, it revises the common assumption that the affricate <č> denotes /t͡ʃ/ for all Slavic languages. On the basis of experimental results it is shown that Slavic <č> stands for two sounds: /t͡ʃ/ as e.g. in Czech and /ʈʂ/ as in Polish.
The second goal of the paper is to show that this difference is not accidental but it is motivated by perceptual relations among sibilants. In Polish, /t͡ʃ/ changed to /ʈʂ/ thus lowering its sibilant tonality and creating a better perceptual distance to /tɕ/, whereas in Czech /t͡ʃ/ did not turn to /ʈʂ/, as the former displayed sufficient perceptual distance to the only affricate present in the inventory, namely, the alveolar /t͡s/. Finally, an analysis of Czech and Polish affricate inventories is offered.
On the avoidance of voiced sibilant affricates
- In this paper it is argued that several typologically unrelated languages share the tendency to avoid voiced sibilant affricates. This tendency is explained by appealing to the phonetic properties of the sounds, and in particular to their aerodynamic characteristics. On the basis of experimental evidence it is shown that conflicting air pressure requirements for maintaining voicing and frication are responsible for the avoidance of voiced affricates. In particular, the air pressure released from the stop phase of the affricate is too high to maintain voicing which in consequence leads to a devoicing of the frication part.
Typology of Consonantal Insertions
- The present study, based on a typological survey of ca. 70 languages, offers a systematization of consonantal insertions by classifying them into three main types: grammatical, phonetic, and prosodic insertions. The three epenthesis types essentially differ from each other in terms of preferred sounds, domains of application, the role of segmental context, their occurrence cross-linguistically, the extent of variation and phonetic explication.
The present investigation is significantly different from other analyses of consonantal epentheses in the sense that it neither invokes markedness nor diachronic state of the processes under discussion. Instead, it considers the different nature of the epenthetic segments by referring to the representational levels and/or domains which are relevant for their appearance.
Subxerophilous and mesophilous grasslands of the Biele Karpaty Mts. (White Carpathian Mts.) in Slovakia
- A long-term systematic survey of grassland communities was performed in the Biele Karpaty Mts. in Slovakia. The main aims of the research were i) syntaxonomical classification of meso- and subxerophilous grassland vegetation, ii) analysis of the main gradients in species composition, iii) evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on species composition of grasslands. The data set included 342 phytosociological relevés of grasslands recorded between 1991 and 1999. For the classification of relevés to associations, the expert system for identification of grassland vegetation of Slovakia was used. The main environmental gradients of species composition were analysed by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). For the ecological interpretation of ordination axes Ellenberg indicator values were used. The relationship between species composition and environmental factors (geology, pedology, climate, topography, management) was analysed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The expert system identified (according to association definitions) 220 phytosociological relevés (64% of the whole data set). Grassland communities were classified within seven associations belonging to four alliances and three classes: Festuco-Brometea: Bromion erecti and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati; Molinio- Arrhenatheretea: Arrhenatherion; Nardetea strictae: Violion caninae. The results of the DCA support our assumption that the main environmental gradient in species compositions of grasslands is related to moisture and soil reaction (content of CaCO3 in the soil). The results of the direct gradient analysis (CCA) show that all 23 environmental variables explained 16.15% of the variability of the species data. The most important factors affecting the data variation were precipitation and geological bedrock.
Multisensory legal machines and legal act production
- This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011
in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2)
multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending
machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form
proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed
by machines have legal importance and draw legal consequences. Machines similarly as humans can
be imposed status-functions of legal actors. The analogy of machines with humans is in the focus of
this paper. Legal content can be communicated by machines and can be perceived by all of our senses.
The content can be expressed in multimodal languages: textual, visual, acoustic, gestures, aircraft
manoeuvres, etc. The concept of encapsulatation of human into machine is proposed. Herein humanintended
actions are communicated through the machine’s output channel. Encapsulations can be
compared with deities and mythical creatures that can send gods’ messages to people through the
human mouth. This paper also aims to identify law production patterns by machines.
Handwriting analysis for diagnosis and prognosis of Parkinson’s disease
Rüdiger W. Brause
- At present, there are no quantitative, objective methods for diagnosing the Parkinson disease. Existing methods of quantitative analysis by myograms suffer by inaccuracy and patient strain; electronic tablet analysis is limited to the visible drawing, not including the writing forces and hand movements. In our paper we show how handwriting analysis can be obtained by a new electronic pen and new features of the recorded signals. This gives good results for diagnostics. Keywords: Parkinson diagnosis, electronic pen, automatic handwriting analysis
Ice-cored moraines in Scandinavia
Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials
Robert G. H. Bunce
- Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socioeconomic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.