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- Laws and skills : an inferential diagnosis and defense (2010)
- Philosophy is essentially dialectical. One gets into a dialectic by a puzzle, an aporia in thought and understanding. The point of philosophizing is not (necessarily) to get hold of the ultimate, objective, and immutably correct answers. The point is rather to come to be able to see one’s way out of the aporia, and to understand how one got into it in the first place. The essay that follows – which I am submitting as my dissertation – is dialectical in two senses. As a piece of philosophizing, the essay is guided by a problem, the problem of understanding how laws of nature are possible, and how it is possible for us to know them. The movement of thought generated by attempts to get out of the problem then yields some ideas that do not stay in the original context in which the problem was felt to exist. Two important ones are, first, perceptual experience is not the only ultimate source of warrant we have for empirical knowledge claims, and second, perceptual experience is not the only epistemically significant experience we can have. Both are consequences of the idea that the mastery of skills is a form of interaction with nature that provides epistemic warrant for nomological claims. I shall leave it to the epilogue to examine how this view of skills contrasts with the ways skills are ordinarily thought of in philosophy and the implication of it for empiricism. The other sense in which the essay is dialectical is more interesting, and it has to do with the way in which I approach the problem that got me into started, namely, by paying special attention to the dialectic exchange between the realists and the antirealists about the laws of nature. Antirealism about the lawfulness of nature has experienced something like a post-Humean revival since the publication of van Fraassen’s The Scientific Image. Most, including me, have strong realist intuitions about nomological “connections” in nature. Philosophical positions that are strongly counterintuitive have mostly not ended well in history. So it becomes something of a puzzle why antirealism about laws of nature manages to enjoy popularity every now and then.

- Reconstruction of a logic for inductive proofs of properties of functional programs (2010)
- The interactive verification system VeriFun is based on a polymorphic call-by-value functional language and on a first-order logic with initial model semantics w.r.t. constructors. It is designed to perform automatic induction proofs and can also deal with partial functions. This paper provides a reconstruction of the corresponding logic and semantics using the standard treatment of undefinedness which adapts and improves the VeriFun-logic by allowing reasoning on nonterminating expressions and functions. Equality of expressions is defined as contextual equivalence based on observing termination in all closing contexts. The reconstruction shows that several restrictions of the VeriFun framework can easily be removed, by natural generalizations: mutual recursive functions, abstractions in the data values, and formulas with arbitrary quantifier prefix can be formulated. The main results of this paper are: an extended set of deduction rules usable in VeriFun under the adapted semantics is proved to be correct, i.e. they respect the observational equivalence in all extensions of a program. We also show that certain classes of theorems are conservative under extensions, like universally quantified equations. Also other special classes of theorems are analyzed for conservativity.

- Reconstruction of a logic for inductive proofs of properties of functional programs (2010)
- The interactive verification system VeriFun is based on a polymorphic call-by-value functional language and on a first-order logic with initial model semantics w.r.t. constructors. This paper provides a reconstruction of the corresponding logic when partial functions are permitted. Typing is polymorphic for the definition of functions but monomorphic for terms in formulas. Equality of terms is defined as contextual equivalence based on observing termination in all contexts. The reconstruction also allows several generalizations of the functional language like mutual recursive functions and abstractions in the data values. The main results are: Correctness of several program transformations for all extensions of a program, which have a potential usage in a deduction system. We also proved that universally quantified equations are conservative, i.e. if a universally quantified equation is valid w.r.t. a program P, then it remains valid if the program is extended by new functions and/or new data types.

- Strengthening the institutional underpinnings of the euro (2010)
- This European Policy Analysis discusses the need to strengthen the institutions underpinning the euro and makes several policy recommendations. The Stability and Growth Pact must be reinforced, have greater automaticity and entail graduated sanctions. Fiscal surveillance must be improved through the establishment of a European Fiscal Stability Agency. Finally, the European Financial Stability Facility must be made permanent.

- How to be a good European... (2010)
- Unter der Überschrift "Ich kaufe griechische Staatsanleihen weil..." sollten Persönlichkeiten aus Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur kurz begründen, warum sie griechische Staatsanleihen gekauft haben bzw. kaufen werden--idealerweise unter Nachweis ihres finanziellen Engagements. Zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt kaufe ich keine griechischen Staatsanleihen...

- G20 and macroprudential policy (2010)
- At the upcoming G20 meetings the issue what can be done to avoid a repetition of the current deep financial crisis will again be debated. Much attention and criticism will be directed to central banks. That is unavoidable: central banks must never again permit the development of financial imbalances that are large enough to lead to the collapse of major parts of the financial system when they unwind. In the future, policy makers must “lean against the wind” and tighten financial conditions if they perceive that imbalances are forming, even if there is little hard data to rely on. And they must be mindful that the costs of acting too late can dwarf those of acting too early.

- Comment on the European Commission's Green Paper "Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis" (2010)
- The European Commission's Green Paper "Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis" raises 38 questions regarding how the audit function could be enhanced in order to contribute to increased financial stability. The authors comment on these 38 questions, arguing that the general level of audit quality can be enhanced by extending the duties of care and by tightening the regulations on liability.

- Human rights for liberals (2010)