Virtueller Wasserhandel - Analyse und Bewertung mit Fokus auf Deutschland
- 140 Liter Wasser werden für die Herstellung einer Tasse Kaffee benötigt, 1.300 Liter Wasser für ein Kilo Gerste und 3.400 Liter Wasser für ein Kilo Reis. Diese Zahlen mögen im ersten Moment unglaubwürdig erscheinen, doch sie entsprechen der Wirklichkeit. Für die Herstellung von nahezu allen Produkten wird Wasser in teils sogar sehr großen Mengen benötigt. In dem Endprodukt jedoch findet sich meist nur ein kleiner Teil des ursprünglich eingesetzten Wassers in seiner physischen Form wieder. Der überwiegende Anteil wurde während des Produktionsprozesses verdunstet oder zur Kühlung eingesetzt und wird daher als „virtuelles Wasser“ bezeichnet. Aufgrund des Exports und Imports von Produkten im Zuge des internationalen Handels kommt es somit auch zu Strömen von virtuellem Wasser zwischen den einzelnen Ländern. In dieser Bachelorarbeit wird der virtuelle Wasserhandel mit 23 verschiedenen Feldfrüchten mit dem Fokus auf Deutschland für den Zeitraum von 1998 bis 2002 untersucht. In die Berechnung dieser virtuellen Wasserströme ist ein neuartiges Modell eingegangen, das Global Crop Water Model (GCWM), welches den virtuellen Wassergehalt für unterschiedliche Feldfruchtgruppen global für jede 5-Minuten-Zelle auf Basis detaillierter Daten berechnet. Dank dieses Modells ist es möglich, eine Trennung zwischen dem virtuellen Wasser, welches aus der Nutzung des Niederschlagswassers und dem virtuellen Wasser, welches aus der Bewässerung von Ackerflächen resultiert, vorzunehmen und diese getrennt von einander zu analysieren. Mittels der Verwendung der Handelsstatistik Comtrade der Vereinten Nationen lässt sich aus den Ergebnissen des GCWM der virtuelle Wasserhandel darstellen. Es zeigt sich, dass Deutschland das meiste Wasser in seiner virtuellen Form nach Algerien, Saudi-Arabien, Belgien und in die Niederlande exportiert, wohingegen aus Brasilien, den USA, Frankreich und der Elfenbeinküste die größten virtuellen Wassermengen importiert werden.
Occurrence and temporal variations of TMDD in the river Rhine, Germany
Arlen A. Guedez
- Background, aim, and scope: The chemical substance 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a non-ionic surfactant used as an industrial defoaming agent and in various other applications. Its commercial name is Surynol 104® and the related ethoxylates are also available as Surfynol® 420, 440, 465 and 485 which are characterized by different grades of ethoxylation of TMDD at both hydroxyl functional groups. TMDD and its ethoxylates offer several advantages in waterborne industrial applications in coatings, inks, adhesives as well as in paper industries. TMDD and its ethoxylates can be expected to reach the aquatic environment due its widespread use and its physico-chemical properties. TMDD has previously been detected in several rivers of Germany with concentrations up to 2.5 µg/L. In the United States, TMDD was also detected in drinking water. However, detailed studies about its presence and distribution in the aquatic environment have not been carried out so far. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the spatial and temporal concentration variations of TMDD in the river Rhine at the Rheingütestation Worms (443.3 km). Moreover, the transported load in the Rhine was investigated during two entire days and 7 weeks between November 2007 and January 2008.
Materials and methods: The sampling was carried out at three different sampling points across the river. Sampling point MWL1 is located in the left part of the river, MWL2 in the middle part, and MWL4 in the right part. One more sampling site (MWL3) was run by the monitoring station until the end of 2006, but was put out of service due to financial constrains. The water at the left side of the river Rhine (MWL1) is influenced by sewage from a big chemical plant in Ludwigshafen and by the sewage water from this city. The water at the right side of the river Rhine (MWL4) is largely composed of the water inflow from river Neckar, discharging into Rhine 14.9 km upstream from the sampling point and of communal and industrial wastewater from the city Mannheim. The water from the middle of the river (MWL2) is largely composed of water from the upper Rhine. Water samples were collected in 1-L bottles by an automatic sampler. The water samples were concentrated by use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bond Elut PPL cartridges and quantified by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The quantification was carried out with the internal standard method. Based on these results, concentration variations were determined for the day profiles and week profiles. The total number of analyzed samples was 219.
Results: The results of this study provide information on the temporal concentration variability of TMDD in river Rhine in a cross section at one particular sampling point (443.3 km). TMDD was detected in all analyzed water samples at high concentrations. The mean concentrations during the 2 days were 314 ng/L in MWL1, 246 ng/L in MWL2, and 286 ng/L in MWL4. The variation of concentrations was low in the day profiles. In the week profiles, a trend of increasing TMDD concentrations was detected particularly in January 2008, when TMDD concentrations reached values up to 1,330 ng/L in MWL1. The mean TMDD concentrations during the week profiles were 540 ng/L in MWL1, 484 ng/L in MWL2, and 576 ng/L in MWL4. The loads of TMDD were also determined and revealed to be comparable in all three sections of the river. The chemical plant located at the left side of the Rhine is not contributing additional TMDD to the river. The load of TMDD has been determined to be 62.8 kg/d on average during the entire period. By extrapolation of data obtained from seven week profiles the annual load was calculated to 23 t/a.
Discussion: The permanent high TMDD concentrations during the investigation period indicate an almost constant discharge of TMDD into the river. This observation argues for effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants as the most likely source of TMDD in the river. Another possible source might be the degradation of ethoxylates of TMDD (Surfynol® series 400), in the WWTPs under formation of TMDD followed by discharge into the river. TMDD has to be considered as a high-production-volume (HPV) chemical based on the high concentrations found in this study. In the United States, TMDD is already in the list of HPV chemicals from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, the amount of TMDD production in Europe is unknown so far and also the biodegradation rates of TMDD in WWTPs have not been investigated.
Conclusions: TMDD was found in high concentrations during the entire sampling period in the Rhine river at the three sampling points. During the sampling period, TMDD concentrations remained constant in each part of the river. These results show that TMDD is uniformly distributed in the water collected at three sampling points located across the river. ‘Waves’ of exceptionally high concentrations of TMDD could not be detected during the sampling period. These results indicate that the effluents of WWTPs have to be considered as the most important sources of TMDD in river Rhine.
Recommendations and perspectives: Based also on the occurrence of TMDD in different surface waters of Germany with concentrations up to 2,500 ng/L and its presence in drinking water in the USA, more detailed investigations regarding its sources and distribution in the aquatic environment are required. Moreover, the knowledge with respect to its ecotoxicity and its biodegradation pathway is scarce and has to be gained in more detail. Further research is necessary to investigate the rate of elimination of TMDD in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in order to clarify the degradation rate of TMDD and to determine to which extent effluents of WWTPs contribute to the input of TMDD into surface waters. Supplementary studies are needed to clarify whether the ethoxylates of TMDD (known as Surfynol 400® series) are hydrolyzed in the aquatic environment resulting in formation of TMDD similar to the well known cleavage of nonylphenol ethoxylates into nonylphenols. The stability of TMDD under anaerobic conditions in groundwater is also unknown and should be studied.
Development of a bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the fast ice nucleus chamber FINCH
- In this work we present the setup and first tests of our new BIO IN detector. This detector is designed to classify atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) for their biological content. Biological material is identified via its auto-fluorescence (intrinsic fluorescence) after irradiation with UV radiation. Ice nuclei are key substances for precipitation development via the Bergeron–Findeisen process. The level of scientific knowledge regarding origin and climatology (temporal and spatial distribution) of IN is very low. Some biological material is known to be active as IN even at relatively high temperatures of up to –2°C (e.g. pseudomonas syringae bacteria). These biological IN could have a strong influence on the formation of clouds and precipitation. We have designed the new BIO IN sensor to analyze the abundance of IN of biological origin. The instrument will be flown on one of the first missions of the new German research aircraft ''HALO'' (High Altitude and LOng Range).
First remote sensing measurements of ClOOCl along with ClO and ClONO2 in activated and deactivated Arctic vortex conditions using new ClOOCl IR absorption cross sections
- Active chlorine species play a dominant role in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the polar vortices during the late winter and early spring seasons. Recently, the correct understanding of the ClO dimer cycle was challenged by the release of new laboratory absorption cross sections (Pope et al., 2007) yielding significant model underestimates of observed ClO and ozone loss (von Hobe et al., 2007). Under this aspect, Arctic stratospheric limb emission measurements carried out by the balloon version of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B) from Kiruna (Sweden) on 11 January 2001 and 20/21 March 2003 have been reanalyzed with regard to the chlorine reservoir species ClONO2 and the active species, ClO and ClOOCl (Cl2O2). New laboratory measurements of IR absorption cross sections of ClOOCl for various temperatures and pressures allowed for the first time the retrieval of ClOOCl mixing ratios from remote sensing measurements. High values of active chlorine (ClOx) of roughly 2.3 ppbv at 20 km were observed by MIPAS-B in the cold mid-winter Arctic vortex on 11 January 2001. While nighttime ClOOCl shows enhanced values of nearly 1.1 ppbv at 20 km, ClONO2 mixing ratios are less than 0.1 ppbv at this altitude. In contrast, high ClONO2 mixing ratios of nearly 2.4 ppbv at 20 km have been observed in the late winter Arctic vortex on 20 March 2003. No significant ClOx amounts are detectable on this date since most of the active chlorine has already recovered to its main reservoir species ClONO2. The observed values of ClOx and ClONO2 are in line with the established chlorine chemistry. The thermal equilibrium constants between the dimer formation and its dissociation, as derived from the balloon measurements, are on the lower side of reported data and in good agreement with values recommended by von Hobe et al. (2007). Calculations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC) using established kinetics show similar chlorine activation and deactivation, compared to the measurements in January 2001 and March 2003, respectively.
Chemical composition of ambient aerosol, ice residues and cloud droplet residues in mixed-phase clouds: single particle analysis during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6)
Daniel J. Cziczo
- wo different single particle mass spectrometers were operated in parallel at the Swiss High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m a.s.l.) during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) in February and March 2007. During mixed phase cloud events ice crystals from 5 μm up to 20 μm were separated from large ice aggregates, non-activated, interstitial aerosol particles and supercooled droplets using an Ice-Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI). During one cloud period supercooled droplets were additionally sampled and analyzed by changing the Ice-CVI setup. The small ice particles and droplets were evaporated by injection into dry air inside the Ice-CVI. The resulting ice and droplet residues (IR and DR) were analyzed for size and composition by two single particle mass spectrometers: a custom-built Single Particle Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) and a commercial Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS, TSI Model 3800). During CLACE 6 the SPLAT instrument characterized 355 individual ice residues that produced a mass spectrum for at least one polarity and the ATOFMS measured 152 particles. The mass spectra were binned in classes, based on the combination of dominating substances, such as mineral dust, sulfate, potassium and elemental carbon or organic material. The derived chemical information from the ice residues is compared to the JFJ ambient aerosol that was sampled while the measurement station was out of clouds (several thousand particles analyzed by SPLAT and ATOFMS) and to the composition of the residues of supercooled cloud droplets (SPLAT: 162 cloud droplet residues analyzed, ATOFMS: 1094). The measurements showed that mineral dust particles were strongly enhanced in the ice particle residues. 57% of the SPLAT spectra from ice residues were dominated by signatures from mineral compounds, and 78% of the ATOFMS spectra. Sulfate and nitrate containing particles were strongly depleted in the ice residues. Sulfate was found to dominate the droplet residues (~90% of the particles). The results from the two different single particle mass spectrometers were generally in agreement. Differences in the results originate from several causes, such as the different wavelength of the desorption and ionisation lasers and different size-dependent particle detection efficiencies.
Tracer measurements in the tropical tropopause layer during the AMMA/SCOUT-O3 aircraft campaign
Carine Dorianne Homan
Anna Christina Kuhn
Anja Sabine Werner
- We present airborne in situ measurements made during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis)/SCOUT-O3 campaign between 31 July and 17 August 2006 on board the M55 Geophysica aircraft, based in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. CO2 and N2O were measured with the High Altitude Gas Analyzer (HAGAR), CO was measured with the Cryogenically Operated Laser Diode (COLD) instrument, and O3 with the Fast Ozone ANalyzer (FOZAN). We analyze the data obtained during five local flights to study the dominant transport processes controlling the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above West-Africa: deep convection up to the level of main convective outflow, overshooting of deep convection, horizontal inmixing across the subtropical tropopause, and horizontal transport across the subtropical barrier. Except for the flight of 13 August, distinct minima in CO2 indicate convective outflow of boundary layer air in the TTL. The CO2 profiles show that the level of main convective outflow was mostly located between 350 and 360 K, and for 11 August reached up to 370 K. While the CO2 minima indicate quite significant convective influence, the O3 profiles suggest that the observed convective signatures were mostly not fresh, but of older origin. When compared with the mean O3 profile measured during a previous campaign over Darwin in November 2005, the O3 minimum at the main convective outflow level was less pronounced over Ouagadougou. Furthermore O3 mixing ratios were much higher throughout the whole TTL and, unlike over Darwin, rarely showed low values observed in the regional boundary layer. Signatures of irreversible mixing following overshooting of convective air were scarce in the tracer data. Some small signatures indicative of this process were found in CO2 profiles between 390 and 410 K during the flights of 4 and 8 August, and in CO data at 410 K on 7 August. However, the absence of expected corresponding signatures in other tracer data makes this evidence inconclusive, and overall there is little indication from the observations that overshooting convection has a profound impact on TTL composition during AMMA. We find the amount of photochemically aged air isentropically mixed into the TTL across the subtropical tropopause to be not significant. Using the N2O observations we estimate the fraction of aged extratropical stratospheric air in the TTL to be 0.0±0.1 up to 370 K during the local flights, increasing above this level to 0.2±0.15 at 390 K. The subtropical barrier, as indicated by the slope of the correlation between N2O and O3 between 415 and 490 K, does not appear as a sharp border between the tropics and extratropics, but rather as a gradual transition region between 10 and 25° N latitude where isentropic mixing between these two regions may occur.
Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical UT/LS: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility
James C. Wilson
Genrikh N. Shur
Kathy S. Law
- Processes occurring in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) are of importance for the global climate, for the stratospheric dynamics and air chemistry, and they influence the global distribution of water vapour, trace gases and aerosols. The mechanisms underlying cloud formation and variability in the UT/LS are of scientific concern as these still are not adequately described and quantified by numerical models. Part of the reasons for this is the scarcity of detailed in-situ measurements in particular from the Tropical Transition Layer (TTL) within the UT/LS. In this contribution we provide measurements of particle number densities and the amounts of non-volatile particles in the submicron size range present in the UT/LS over Southern Brazil, West Africa, and Northern Australia. The data were collected in-situ on board of the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" using the specialised COPAS (COndensation PArticle counting System) instrument during the TROCCINOX (Araçatuba, Brazil, February 2005), the SCOUT-O3 (Darwin, Australia, December 2005), and SCOUT-AMMA (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, August 2006) campaigns. The vertical profiles obtained are compared to those from previous measurements from the NASA DC-8 and NASA WB-57F over Costa Rica and other tropical locations between 1999 and 2007. The number density of the submicron particles as function of altitude was found to be remarkably constant (even back to 1987) over the tropical UT/LS altitude band such that a parameterisation suitable for models can be extracted from the measurements. At altitudes corresponding to potential temperatures above 430 K a slight increase of the number densities from 2005/2006 results from the data in comparison to the 1987 to 2007 measurements. The origins of this increase are unknown. By contrast the data from Northern hemispheric mid latitudes do not exhibit such an increase between 1999 and 2006. Vertical profiles of the non-volatile fraction of the submicron particles were also measured by a COPAS channel and are presented here. The resulting profiles of the non-volatile number density fraction show a pronounced maximum of 50% in the tropical TTL over Australia and West Africa. Below and above this fraction is much lower attaining values of 10% and smaller. In the lower stratosphere the fine particles mostly consist of sulphuric acid which is reflected in the low numbers of non-volatile residues measured by COPAS. Without detailed chemical composition measurements the reason for the increase of non-volatile particle fractions cannot yet be given. The long distance transfer flights to Brazil, Australia and West-Africa were executed during a time window of 17 months within a period of relative volcanic quiescence. Thus the data measured during these transfers represent a "snapshot picture" documenting the status of a significant part of the global UT/LS aerosol (with sizes below 1 μm) at low concentration levels 15 years after the last major (i.e., the 1991 Mount Pinatubo) eruption. The corresponding latitudinal distributions of the measured particle number densities are also presented in this paper in order to provide input on the UT/LS background aerosol for modelling purposes.
Secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of naphthalene and alkylnaphthalenes: implications for oxidation of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs)
Arthur Wing Hong Chan
Kathryn E. Kautzman
Puneet Singh Chhabra
Jason D. Surratt
Man N. Chan
John D. Crounse
Paul O. Wennberg
Richard C. Flagan
John H. Seinfeld
- Current atmospheric models do not include secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from gas-phase reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recent studies have shown that primary semivolatile emissions, previously assumed to be inert, undergo oxidation in the gas phase, leading to SOA formation. This opens the possibility that low-volatility gas-phase precursors are a potentially large source of SOA. In this work, SOA formation from gas-phase photooxidation of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN), 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MN), and 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (1,2-DMN) is studied in the Caltech dual 28-m3 chambers. Under high-NOx conditions and aerosol mass loadings between 10 and 40 μg m, the SOA yields (mass of SOA per mass of hydrocarbon reacted) ranged from 0.19 to 0.30 for naphthalene, 0.19 to 0.39 for 1-MN, 0.26 to 0.45 for 2-MN, and constant at 0.31 for 1,2-DMN. Under low-NOx conditions, the SOA yields were measured to be 0.73, 0.68, and 0.58, for naphthalene, 1-MN, and 2-MN, respectively. The SOA was observed to be semivolatile under high-NOx conditions and essentially nonvolatile under low-NOx conditions, owing to the higher fraction of ring-retaining products formed under low-NOx conditions. When applying these measured yields to estimate SOA formation from primary emissions of diesel engines and wood burning, PAHs are estimated to yield 3–5 times more SOA than light aromatic compounds. PAHs can also account for up to 54% of the total SOA from oxidation of diesel emissions, representing a potentially large source of urban SOA.
Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment
Martin Bødker Enghoff
Karen L. Aplin
R. Giles Harrison
Nigel D. Marsh
Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen
John H. Seinfeld
Paul E. Wagner
Paul M. Winkler
- During a 4-week run in October–November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the CLOUD1 experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment was firstly to carry out exploratory measurements of the effect of ionising particle radiation on aerosol formation from trace H2SO4 vapour and secondly to provide technical input for the CLOUD design. A total of 44 nucleation bursts were produced and recorded, with formation rates of particles above the 3 nm detection threshold of between 0.1 and 100 cm−3s−1, and growth rates between 2 and 37 nm h−1. The corresponding H2SO4 concentrations were typically around 106 cm−3 or less. The experimentally-measured formation rates and H2SO4 concentrations are comparable to those found in the atmosphere, supporting the idea that sulphuric acid is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest experimental SO2 concentrations of 6 ppb, although none was found at lower concentrations. Overall, the exploratory measurements provide suggestive evidence for ion-induced nucleation or ion-ion recombination as sources of aerosol particles. However in order to quantify the conditions under which ion processes become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most important lessons for the CLOUD design include the stringent requirement of internal cleanliness of the aerosol chamber, as well as maintenance of extremely stable temperatures (variations below 0.1°C).
Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs
- Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes by water withdrawals and dams, focusing in particular on the change of flow variability. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months) have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland), respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and dams, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas with little consumptive water use that are downstream of dams. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow alterations are the western and central USA, Mexico, the western coast of South America, the Mediterranean rim, Southern Africa, the semi-arid and arid countries of the Near East and Western Asia, Pakistan and India, Northern China and the Australian Murray-Darling Basin, as well as some Arctic rivers. Due to a large number of uncertainties related e.g. to the estimation of water use and reservoir operation rules, the analysis is expected to provide only first estimates of river flow alterations that should be refined in the future.