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- Papers on pragmasemantics (2009)
- Optimality theory as used in linguistics (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004; Smolensky & Legendre, 2006) and cognitive psychology (Gigerenzer & Selten, 2001) is a theoretical framework that aims to integrate constraint based knowledge representation systems, generative grammar, cognitive skills, and aspects of neural network processing. In the last years considerable progress was made to overcome the artificial separation between the disciplines of linguistic on the one hand which are mainly concerned with the description of natural language competences and the psychological disciplines on the other hand which are interested in real language performance. The semantics and pragmatics of natural language is a research topic that is asking for an integration of philosophical, linguistic, psycholinguistic aspects, including its neural underpinning. Especially recent work on experimental pragmatics (e.g. Noveck & Sperber, 2005; Garrett & Harnish, 2007) has shown that real progress in the area of pragmatics isn’t possible without using data from all available domains including data from language acquisition and actual language generation and comprehension performance. It is a conceivable research programme to use the optimality theoretic framework in order to realize the integration. Game theoretic pragmatics is a relatively young development in pragmatics. The idea to view communication as a strategic interaction between speaker and hearer is not new. It is already present in Grice' (1975) classical paper on conversational implicatures. What game theory offers is a mathematical framework in which strategic interaction can be precisely described. It is a leading paradigm in economics as witnessed by a series of Nobel prizes in the field. It is also of growing importance to other disciplines of the social sciences. In linguistics, its main applications have been so far pragmatics and theoretical typology. For pragmatics, game theory promises a firm foundation, and a rigor which hopefully will allow studying pragmatic phenomena with the same precision as that achieved in formal semantics. The development of game theoretic pragmatics is closely connected to the development of bidirectional optimality theory (Blutner, 2000). It can be easily seen that the game theoretic notion of a Nash equilibrium and the optimality theoretic notion of a strongly optimal form-meaning pair are closely related to each other. The main impulse that bidirectional optimality theory gave to research on game theoretic pragmatics stemmed from serious empirical problems that resulted from interpreting the principle of weak optimality as a synchronic interpretation principle. In this volume, we have collected papers that are concerned with several aspects of game and optimality theoretic approaches to pragmatics.

- English translation of "Dragonflies (Odonata, Insecta) of the Far East of Russia" (2009)
- English translation of: E. I. Malikova. 1995. Strekozy (Odonata, Insecta) Dal’nego Vostoka Rossii. [Dragonflies (Odonata, Insecta) of the Far East of Russia]. (Autoreferate of the dissertation for aspiration of the scientific degree of candidate of biological sciences). Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Novosibirsk, 24 p. (in Russian)

- Report on Macedonia 2008 project - Odonata (2009)
- The project Macedonia 2008 was initiated to obtain an overview of the current situation of the dragonfly fauna in Macedonia. Macedonia here refers to the territory of a former federal unit of the SFR Yugoslavia, and not to whole Macedonia. The records collected during this project are to become part of the data base for an Atlas of Odonata of Europe coordinated by Vincent Kalkman (European Invertebrate Survey, The Netherlands). Similar to other countries in this region, the odonate fauna of Macedonia is underresearched. So far, the largest research interest was directed towards the large lakes in Macedonia (Ohrid, Dojran and Prespa Lakes) (Filevska, 1954; Karaman, 1981; Karaman, 1984-85, Peters & Hackethal, 1986), the parts of the country under great influence of Mediterranean climate (Adamović, 1990) and the area around the capital city, Skopje (Adamović, 1949; Karaman, 1969; Peters & Hackethal, 1986). Some of the goals of Macedonia 2008 were: i) to visit places that had not been previously studied, ii) to re-visit places that have significantly changed compared to previous research and iii) to visit localities that are characteristic for this region.

- Review of the Odonata of Crimea (Ukraine) (2009)
- A list of 60 Odonata species and their distribution across 109 localities on the Crimean Peninsula is provided. The study is based on a literature review and a field survey between 1999 and 2008. Erythromma lindenii and Epitheca bimaculata are here recorded for the first time from Crimea. Diagnostic morphological characters of Calopteryx splendens taurica and Orthetrum coerulecens anceps are briefly described. Discriptions of typical Crimean habitats of dragonflies are also presented. The necessity of the protection of Crimean freshwater habitats is discussed.

- Summary catalogue of the Odonata of Peru (2009)
- In the entomological library of the Natural History Museum of Lima, Peru, a badly damaged manuscript, entitled 'Summary Catalogue of the Odonata of Peru' was discovered at the beginning of the 1990s. This manuscript had been kept there since 1933. Its author was stated as 'J. Cowley'. Whether indeed Cowley is the sole author of the whole text, cannot be asserted with certainty. However there are numerous indications that the manuscript was written in Cambridge, England . It seems certain that the list itself was written by Cowley, since many examples were given from his collection and the way the locations were cited. Presumably the manuscript was written together with the German veterinarian Paul Martin and his wife Margarita who lived in Lima. Martin was a very enthusiastic amateu r lepidopterologist who had set up a network of butterfly collectors in Peru. Insects other than Lepidoptera were passed on by Martin to specialists, dragonflies apparently mainly to Cowley, who named a species in honour of Martin.

- Luis Kutner and the development of the advance directive (living will) (2009)
- It is well known that Luis Kutner (1908-1993) played an important role in the development of the living will (advance directive, Patientenverfügung). But it is not clear when he developed his concept. We have screened the Luis Kutner Papers,deposited at the Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University to answer this question. We found out that in the second half of 1967, Kutner dealt intensively with the issue of euthanasia. On December 7, 1967, he delivered a speech at the annual meeting of the Euthanasia Society in New York and presented the concept of the living will to the audience. So Kutner surely was a pioneer in this field, but further research is necessary to clarify, if he (or maybe Elsa W. Simon or Abraham L. Wolbarst) was the "originator" of the living will concept in the sense of passive euthanasia.

- On correctness of buffer implementations in a concurrent lambda calculus with futures (2009)
- Motivated by the question of correctness of a specific implementation of concurrent buffers in the lambda calculus with futures underlying Alice ML, we prove that concurrent buffers and handled futures can correctly encode each other. Correctness means that our encodings preserve and reflect the observations of may- and must-convergence, and as a consequence also yields soundness of the encodings with respect to a contextually defined notion of program equivalence. While these translations encode blocking into queuing and waiting, we also describe an adequate encoding of buffers in a calculus without handles, which is more low-level and uses busy-waiting instead of blocking. Furthermore we demonstrate that our correctness concept applies to the whole compilation process from high-level to low-level concurrent languages, by translating the calculus with buffers, handled futures and data constructors into a small core language without those constructs.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2009)
- We investigate methods and tools for analyzing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behavior of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2009)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus’ semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as nondeterminism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe’s proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.