- English (15) (remove)
- Role of enhanced stem cell capacities in leukemogenesis (2006)
- Unlimited self-renewal is an absolute prerequisite for any malignancy, and is the ultimate arbiter of the continuous growth and metastasis of tumors. It has been suggested that the self-renewal properties of a tumor are exclusively contained within a small population, i.e., the so-called cancer stem cells. Enhanced self-renewal potential plays a pivotal role in the development of leukemia. My data have shown that APL associated translocation products PML/RARalpha and PLZF/RARalpha increased the replating efficiency of mouse lin-/Sca1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This effect is partly mediated by induction of gamma–catenin which is an important mediator of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been shown to be up regulated by the AML associated translocation products(AATPs). Suppression of gamma–catenin by siRNA can abrogate the increased replating efficiency induced by AATPs. Transduction of gamma–catenin in lin-/Sca1+ HSCs led to increased replating efficiency and the expression of stem cell markers Sca1 and c-kit. Additionally it induced accelerated cell cycle progression of mouse bone marrow HSCs. Transduction/transplantation mouse models have shown that ectopic expression of gamma–catenin in HSCs led to acute myeloid leukemia without maturation. These data suggest important roles of Wnt signaling pathway in the leukemogenesis induced by PML/RARalpha, PLZF/RARalpha and AML1/ETO. In contrast to AATPs, CML and Ph+-ALL associated translocation products p185(BCR-ABL) and p210(BCR-ABL) did not affect the self-renewal potential of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. However my studies indicated that their reciprocal translocation products p40(ABL/BCR) and p96(ABL/BCR) actually increased the replating efficiency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. The effect is stronger when induced by p96(ABL/BCR) than by p40(ABL/BCR). It is very intriguing that p96(ABL/BCR) can activate Wnt signaling and up regulate the expression of HoxB4. Transduction/transplantation mouse model has shown that p40(ABL/BCR) and p96(ABL/BCR) both have their own leukemogenic potential. Given the fact that leukemic stem cells maintain the growth of tumor and are the origin of relapse, the cure of leukemia is dependent on the eradication of the leukemic stem cell and abrogation of aberrantly regulated self-renewal capability. Both t-RA and As2O3 have been shown to induce complete remission in APL patients with PML/RARalpha translocation product. However, t-RA as a single agent achieves completeremission (CR) but not complete molecular remissions (CMR). Therefore, virtually all patients will experience a relapse within a few months. In contrast to t-RA, As2O3 as a single agent is able to induce CR as well as CMR followed by long-term relapse-free survival in about 50% of APL patients even if relapsed after treatment with t-RA-containing chemotherapy regimens. Nothing is known about the mechanisms leading to the complete different clinical outcomes by the two compounds although both have been shown to induce differentiation of blast cells, proliferation arrest, induction of apoptosis and degradation of PML/RARalpha. We investigated the effect of t-RA and arsenic on PML/RARalpha-expressing cell population with stem cell capacity derived from the APL cell line NB4 as well as Sca1+/lin- murine bone marrow cells. We found that t-RA did not reduce the replating efficiency in PML/RARalpha- and PLZF/RARalpha-infected Sca1+/lincells whereas it selected small compact colonies representing very early progenitor cells. T-RA was unable to reduce the capacity to form colony forming units-spleen (CFU-S) of Sca1+/lin-cells expressing PML/RARalpha, additionally t-RA did not impair the capability of engraftment of NB4 cells in NOD/SCID mouse. On the contrary to t-RA, As2O3 abolished the aberrant self-renewal potential of Sca1+/lin- cells expressing PML/RARalpha. As2O3 not only abolished the replating efficiency of PML/RARalpha positive cells but also completely abrogated the ability of PML/RARalpha-positive HSC to produce CFU-S in vivo. On the contrary to As2O3, t-RA increased the absolute cell number and the percentage of cells in the side population with respect to the whole cell population in NB4 cells. Taken together these data suggest that arsenic but not all-trans retinoic acid overcomes the aberrant stem cell capacity of PML/RARalpha positive leukemic stem cells. My data prove for the first time that there is a direct relationship between the capacity of compounds to effectively target the LSC and their capacity to eradicate the leukemia, and, thereby, to induce complete molecular remission and long-term relapse-free survival. Thus, in order to increase the curative potential of leukemia therapies, future studies need to include the effect of given compounds on the stem cell compartment to determine their ability to eradicate the LSC.
- Regulation of the catalytic subunits of NADPH oxidase Nox1 and NOX4 in rat mesangial cells (2005)
- The generation of O2- by NADPH oxidaes was mainly attributed to immune cells that kill invading bacteria or cancer cells. But importantly, in the past several years, several homologs of the catalytic subunit gp91phox (Nox2) of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been identified in non-immune cells and tissues. Superoxide production derived from NADPH oxidaes has been shown to play a role not only in host defense but also in defined signaling cascades mediating growth and apoptosis. The aim of this work was to study the expression and the regulation of the”new” Nox isoforms in rat renal mesangial cells (MC). In particular the following results were achieved. 1) mRNA’s for both Nox1 and Nox4 were detected by RT-PCR. 2) Nox1 mRNA levels were increased upon exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fetal calf serum (FCS) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exposure of MC to bFGF and FCS increased also basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by MC. By contrast, Nox4 mRNA levels were not significantly affected by bFGF treatment, but were markedly down-regulated by PDGF and FCS. 3) To study the regulation of Nox1 on the protein level, an anti-Nox1 antibody was generated and characterized using affinity chromatography. Up-regulation of Nox1 expression by growth factors was confirmed also on the protein level. 4) Based on the already known cDNA sequence for Nox1, the transcriptional start site was determined by the “gene RACE” technique. 2547 bp of the genomic sequence of the 5´-flanking region of the Nox1 gene were cloned and sequenced using the „Genome-Walking“ method. To study the regulation of Nox1 transcription functional Nox1 promoter/luciferase fusions were be established. MC were transiently transfected with different promoter/luciferase constructs and stimulated with growth factors. By measuring luciferase activity it was determined that growth factors induced the Nox1 transcription and that the Nox1 core promoter is sufficient for the activation. 5) By measurement of superoxide radicals and analysis of Nox1 mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan) as well as protein level by Western blotting it could be shown that treatment of MC with NO donors inhibited the expression of Nox1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, using activators and inhibitors of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) it could be shown, that the activation of sGC mediates the effect of NO on Nox1 expression. However, NO had no inhibitory effect on Nox1 promoter activity. Experiments with the inhibitor of transcription, actinomycin D, suggest that NO-mediated regulation of Nox1 is triggered probably via post-transcriptional mechanisms. Nox4 is regulated on the mRNA levels in a similar manner as Nox1. 6) To analyze the sub-cellular localization of the Nox isoforms, coding sequences for Nox1 and Nox4 were fused together with green fluorescent protein into the pEGFP-N1 demonstrated that both isoforms are localized predominantly in the plasma membrane, but also in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. However, the localization of Nox1 in the plasma membrane was more pronounced. 7) In addition to Nox1 and Nox4, mRNA of the newly identified NOXA1 that is a homolog of the p67phox subunit of NADPH oxidase was detected in MC by RT-PCR.
- Effect of chromatin modeling by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate (2005)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of a large number of abnormal, immature blast cells. Recently, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) received considerable interest on the ground of their ability to overcome the differentiation block in these leukemic blasts regardless of the primary genetic alteration, an effect achieved either alone or in combination with differentiating agents, such as all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA). Valproic acid (VPA), a potent HDI, is now under clinical evaluation owing to its potent differentiation effect on transformed hematopoietic progenitor cells and leukemic blasts from AML patients. Conversely, in a clinical study by Bug et al., the favorable effects of the combination treatment with t-RA/VPA in advanced acute myeloid leukemia patients were reported to be most likely due to an enhancement of nonleukemic myelopoiesis and the suppression of malignant hematopoiesis rather than enforced differentiation of the leukemic cells. Based on the hypothesis that VPA influences normal hematopoiesis, the effect of chromatin modeling through VPA on HSCs was investigated with respect to differentiation, proliferation as well as self-renewal in the present study. It has been shown that valproic acid increases both proliferation and self-renewal of HSC. It accelerates cell cycle progression of HSC accompanied by a down-regulation of p21cip-1/waf-1. Furthermore, valproic acid inhibits GSK3B by phosphorylation on Ser9 accompanied by an activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as well as by an up-regulation of HoxB4, a target gene of Wnt signaling. Both are known to directly stimulate the proliferation of HSC and to expand the HSC pool. To sum up, valproic acid, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor known to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in leukemic blasts, stimulates the proliferation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, the data reported in this study suggest to reconsider the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors from a differentiation inducer to a coadjuvant factor for increasing the response to conventional therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.
- Role of rho GTPases in migration of stem and progenitor cells (2005)
- Stem cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple tissues are important in medicine to reconstitute the hematopoietic system after myelo-ablative chemo- or radiotherapy. In the present situation, adult stem cells such as Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are used for therapeutic purposes. For tissue regeneration and tissue constitution, engraftment of transplanted stem cells is a necessary feature. However, in many instances, the transplanted stem cells reach the tissues with low efficiency. Considering the three-step model of leukocyte extravasation by Springer et al, the rolling, adhesion and transmigration form the three major steps for the transplanted stem cells to enter the desired tissues. One of the molecular switches reported to be involved in these mechanisms are the Rho family GTPases. The present study investigates the role of Rho GTPases in adhesion and migration of stem and progenitor cells. Chemotactic and chemokinetic migration assays, transendothelial migration assays, migration of cells under shear stress, microinjection, retroviral and lentiviral gene transfer methods, oligonucleotide microarray analysis and pull down assays were employed in this study for the elucidation of Rho GTPase involvement in migration and adhesion of stem and progenitor cells. The transmigration assay used for the migration determination of the adherent cell type, MSC, was optimized for the efficient and effective assessment of the migrating cells. The involvement of Rho was found to be critical for stem and progenitor cell migration where inactivation of Rho by C2I-C3 transferase toxin and/or overexpression of C3 transferase cDNA increased the migration rate of Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and MSC. Moreover, modulation of Rho caused predictable cytoskeletal and morphological changes in MSC. Assessment of Rho GTPase involvement in the interacting partner, the endothelial cells during stem cell migration, revealed that active Rho expression induced E-selectin expression. The increased levels of E-selectin were functionally confirmed by the increased adhesion of progenitor cells (HPC) to the Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) layer. Moreover, inhibition of Rac in the migrating endothelial progenitor cells (eEPC) increased their adhesion to HUVEC correlating with the increased percentage expression of cell surface receptor, CD44 in Rac inactivated eEPC. In conclusion, this study shows that Rho GTPases control the adhesion and migration of stem and progenitor cells, HPC and MSC. Rho inhibition drives the cells to migrate in the blood vessels. The substantial increase in the level of active Rho in endothelial layer, manifested by the E-selectin surface expression assists the better adhesion of stem and progenitor cells to the endothelial layer. Serum factors and growth factors in the physiological system influence the Rho GTPase expression in both migrating stem cells and the barrier endothelial cells. Thus, specific modulation of Rho GTPases in the transplanted stem and progenitor cells could be an interesting tool to improve the migration and homing processes of stem cells for cellular therapy in future.
- Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung des Kern-Zytoplasma Transports für die biologische Funktion zellulärer Proteine (2005)
- The thesis entitled „Investigations on the significance of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport for the biological function of cellular proteins" aimed to unreveal molecular mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of the impact of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport on cellular functions. Within the scope of this work, it could be shown that regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of a subfamily of homeobox transcription factors controlled their intra- and intercellular transport, and thereby influencing also their transcriptional activity. This study describes a novel regulatory mechanism, which could in general play an important role for the ordered differentiation of complex organisms. Besides cis-active transport Signals, also post-translational modifications can influence the localization and biological activity of proteins in trans. In addition to the known impact of phosphorylation on the transport and activity of STAT1, experimental evidence was provided demonstrating that acetylation affected the interaction of STAT1 with NF-kB p65, and subsequently modulated the expression of apoptosis-inducing NF-kB target genes. The impact of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport on the regulation of apoptosis was underlined by showing that the evolutionary conservation of a NES within the anti-apoptotic protein survivin plays an essential role for its dual function in the inhibition of apoptosis and ordered cell division. Since survivin is considered a bona fide cancer therapy target, these results strongly encourage future work to identify molecular decoys that specifically inhibit the nuclear export of survivin as novel therapeutics. In order to further dissect the regulation of nuclear transport and to efficiently identify transport inhibitors, cell-based assays are urgently required. Therefore, the cellular assay Systems developed in this work may not only serve to identify synthetic nuclear export and Import inhibitors but may also be applied in systematic RNAi-screening approaches to identify novel components of the transport machinery. In addition, the translocation based protease- and protein-interaction biosensors can be applied in various biological Systems, in particular to identify protein-protein interaction inhibitors of cancer relevant proteins. In summary, this work does not only underline the general significance of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport for cell biology, but also demonstrates its potential for the development of novel therapies against diseases like cancer and viral infections.
- The role of oncogenic Cbl mutants in Kit signaling and myeloid transformation (2009)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic cell disorder characterized by a block in differentiation and increased proliferation and survival of malignant blasts. Expansion of the malignant cell clone effects the normal production of blood cells and – if left untreated – leads to death. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, as they are either often mutated or overexpressed. In normal hematopoiesis, RTK signal termination is tightly controlled, and involves ubiquitination, internalization, endocytosis and degradation. Cbl proteins are E3 ligases and have been shown to ubiquitinate several activated RTKs, including Flt3 and Kit, targeting them for degradation. Recently, several Cbl mutations have been identified: Cbl-R420Q was identified in an AML patient and Cbl-70Z was identified in a mouse lymphoma model. In this thesis work, the role of these Cbl mutants in Kit signaling and in a mouse transplantation model was studied. Cbl mutants (Cbl-R420Q, Cbl-70Z) have the ability to transform the myeloid 32D cell line in cooperation with Kit WT. Cbl mutants along with Kit promoted interleukin-3 (IL3)-independent proliferation and enhanced the cell survival of 32D cells. In contrast, expression of the Cbl mutants alone did not confer IL3-independent growth. Stem cell factor (SCF, the Kit ligand) dependent growth was enhanced in the presence of Cbl mutants and Cbl mutants promoted colonogenic growth in the presence of Kit. Furthermore, Cbl mutants inhibited the ubiquitination of the activated Kit receptor. In addition, Cbl mutants inhibited the endocytosis of the activated Kit receptor. Retroviral expression of Cbl mutants in transplanted bone marrow induced a generalized mastocytosis, a myeloproliferative disease and, in rare care cases, myeloid leukemia. Splenomegaly was observed in the presence of Cbl mutants. Furthermore, mast cells with variable range of infiltration were noticed in all the vital organs (spleen, liver, bone marrow, lung, kidney, heart) of Cbl (mutant) transplanted mice. Almost all recipients of bone marrow cells transduced with Cbl mutants developed a lethal hematologic disorder with a mean latency of 341 days in the Cbl-R420Q group and 395 days in the Cbl-70Z group. This is the first published report on a hematological disease with Cbl mutants in a mouse model. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that Cbl-70Z binds to Kit, even in the absence of Kit ligand. Cbl-R420Q also bound to Kit in the absence of SCF, albeit to a lesser extent. Association of Cbl mutants to Kit was enhanced in the presence of SCF. Signaling studies demonstrated the constitutive activation of Akt and Erk in the presence of Cbl mutants and Kit. In addition, Cbl mutants enhanced the SCF-dependent Kit, Akt and Erk activation. Cbl-70Z, in association with kinase-dead Kit (Kit-KD) or kinase-dead Flt3 (Flt3-KD), conferred IL3-independent growth and survival to the myeloid 32D cell line. Cbl-R420Q provided only a slight growth advantage in the presence of Kit-KD. As demonstrated by pharmacological inhibition studies, Akt activation was necessary for the transformation mediated by Cbl-70Z and Kit-KD / Flt3-KD. Cbl mutants enhanced the Src family kinases (SFKs) activity. The pharmacological inhibition of SFK activity inhibited the proliferation and colonogenic growth. Interaction was found between Cbl-70Z, SFKs and Kit-KD. The SFK member Fyn was identified to bind to Cbl. In addition, kinase activity of SFKs was necessary for binding to Cbl, since SFKs inhibition by PP-2 abolished the binding between the complex-binding partners. Dasatinib and PP-2, both SFK inhibitors, inhibited the Cbl and Akt phosphorylation indicating that Fyn acts upstream of Akt. Inhibition of Kit with imatinib reduced the proliferation of cells overexpressing Kit WT and Cbl-70Z much stronger compared with cells expressing Kit-KD and Cbl-70Z, but much less than the dual KIT/SFK inhibitor dasatinib. This indicated that Kit kinase activity was required but not essential. The data presented in this thesis work implies that both RTK and SFK inhibition may have to be targeted, in order to effectively prevent transformation. In summary, the present thesis work indicates an important role of Cbl, Kit and SFKs in myeloid transformation and deregulated signal transduction.
- HuR promotes tumorigenic characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma (2013)
- In the absence of apparent mutations, alteration of gene expression patterns represents the key mechanism by which normal cells evolve to cancer cells. Gene expression is tightly regulated by posttranscriptional processes. Within this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) represent fundamental factors, since they control mechanisms, such as mRNA-stabilization, -translation and -degradation. Human antigen R (HuR) was among the first RBPs that have been directly associated to carcinogenesis. HuR modulates the stability and translation of mRNAs which encode proteins facilitating various ‘hallmarks of cancer’, namely proliferation, evasion of growth suppression, angiogenesis, cell death resistance, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it is well established that tumor-promoting inflammation contributes to tumorigenesis. In this process, monocytes are attracted to the site of the tumor and educated towards a tumor-promoting macrophage phenotype. While HuR has been extensively studied in various tumor cell types, little is known about HuR in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, the aim of my work was to characterize the contribution of HuR to the development of cancer characteristics in HCC. I was particularly interested to investigate if HuR facilitates tumor-promoting inflammation, since a role for HuR has not been described in this context. To this end, I depleted HuR in HepG2 cells (HuR k/d) and used a co-culture model of HepG2 tumor spheroids and infiltrating monocytes to study the impact of HuR on the tumor microenvironment. I could show that depletion of HuR resulted in the reduction of cell numbers. Additionally, the expression of proliferation marker KI-67 and proto-oncogene c-Myc was reduced, supporting a proliferative role of HuR. Furthermore, exposure to cytotoxic staurosporine elevated apoptosis in HuR k/d cells compared to control cells. Concomitantly, the expression of the anti-apoptotic mediator B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) was markedly reduced in the HuR k/d cells, pointing to an involvement of HuR in cell survival processes. Accordingly, a pro-survival function of HuR was also observed in tumor spheroids, since HuR k/d spheroids exhibited a larger necrotic core region at earlier time points and showed elevated numbers of dead cells compared to control (Ctr.) spheroids. Interestingly, HuR k/d spheroids isplayed reduced numbers of infiltrated macrophages, suggesting that HuR contributes to a tumor-promoting, inflammatory microenvironment by recruiting monocytes/macrophages to the tumor site. Aiming at identifying HuR-regulated factors responsible for the recruitment of monocytes, I found reduced levels of the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) in supernatants of HuR k/d spheroids, supporting a critical involvement of HuR in the chemoattraction of monocytes. Analyzing supernatants of co-cultures of macrophages and HuR k/d or Ctr. spheroids revealed additional differences in chemokine secretion patterns. Interestingly, protein levels of many chemokines were elevated in co-cultures of HuR k/d spheroids compared to control co-cultures. Albeit enhanced chemokine secretion was observed, less monocytes are recruited into HuR k/d spheroids, further underlining the necessity of HuR in cancer related monocyte/macrophage attraction and infiltration. Differences between chemokine profiles of mono- and co-cultured spheroids could be attributable to changes in spheroid-derived chemokines as a result of the crosstalk with the immune cells. Provided the chemokines originate from monocytes/macrophages, the different secretion patterns suggest that HuR contributes to the modulation of the functional phenotype of infiltrated macrophages, since the tumorenvironment is critically involved in the shaping of macrophage phenotypes. Regions of low-oxygen (hypoxia) represent another critical feature of tumors. Therefore, I next analyzed the impact of HuR on the hypoxic response. Loss of HuR attenuated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 2α expression after exposure to hypoxia, while HIF-1α protein levels remained unaltered. Considering previous results of our group, showing that HIF-2α depletion (HIF-2α k/d) resulted in the enhanced expression of HIF-1α protein, I aimed to determine the involvement of HuR in the compensatory upregulation of HIF-1α protein in HIF-2α k/d cells. I could demonstrate that not only total HuR protein levels, but specifically cytoplasmic HuR was elevated in HIF-2α depleted cells pointing to enhanced HuR activity. Silencing HuR in HIF-2α deficient cells attenuated enhanced HIF-1α protein expression, thus confirming a direct role of HuR in the compensatory upregulation of HIF-1α. This as also reflected on HIF-1α target gene expression. I further investigated the mechanism underlying the compensatory HIF-1α expression in HIF-2α deficient cells. Analyzing HIF-1α mRNA expression, I excluded enhanced HIF1-α transcription and stability to account for elevated HIF-1α expression in HIF-2α k/d cells. HIF-1α promoter activity assays confirmed the mRNA data. Furthermore, HIF-1α protein half-life was not elevated in HIF-2α k/d cells compared to control cells, indicating that HIF-1α protein stability is not altered in HIF-2α k/d cells. Analysis of the association of HIF-1α with the translational machinery using polysomal fractionation finally revealed an increased istribution of HIF-1α mRNA in the heavier polysomal fractions in HIF-2α k/d cells compared to control cells. Since augmented ribosome occupancy is an indicator for more efficient translation, I propose enhanced HIF-1α translation as underlying principle of the compensatory increase in HIF-1α protein levels in HIF-2α k/d cells. In summary, my results demonstrate that HuR is critical for the development of cancer characteristics in HCC. Future work analyzing the impact of HuR on tumor-promoting inflammation, specifically macrophage attraction and activation could provide new trategies to inhibit macrophage-driven tumor progression. Furthermore, I provide evidence that HuR contributes to the hypoxic response by regulating the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Targeting single HIF-isoforms for tumor therapy should be carefully considered, because of their compensatory regulation when one α-subunit is depleted. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting factors such as HuR that control both α-subunits and at the same time prevent compensation might be more promising.
- Development of lentiviral vectors for the gene therapy of HIV infection (2010)
- Drug toxicity and viral resistance limit long-term efficacy of antiviral drug treatment for HIV infection. Thus, alternative therapies need to be explored. Previously, group of “Prof. von Laer” tested the infusion of T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector (M87o) that expresses an HIV entry inhibitory peptide (maC46). Gene-modified autologous T cells were infused into 10 HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and multidrug resistant virus during antiretroviral combination therapy. T cell infusions were tolerated well with no severe side effects. A significant increase of CD4 counts was observed post infusion. At the end of the one-year follow-up, the CD4 counts of all patients were still around or above baseline. Gene-modified cells could be detected in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and bone marrow throughout the oneyear follow-up, whereby marking levels correlated with the cell dose. No significant changes of viral load were observed during the first four months. Four of the seven patients that changed their antiviral drug regimen thereafter responded with a significant decline in plasma viral load. In conclusion, the transfer of gene-modified cells was safe, led to sustained levels of gene marking and may improve immune competence in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and multidrug resistant virus. However, the low level of gene marking and the lack of substantial long-term in vivo accumulation of gene-protected cells observed in this trial clearly demonstrate the requirement for new vectors with new strategy. In this thesis self‐inactivating lentiviral vectors harboring internal promoters and RNA elements were therefore evaluated for their potential use in a clinical gene‐therapy trial. The results from this work provide the basis for the selection of a suitable candidate vector for extensive preclinical testing. Apart from being capable of transducing non‐dividing cells, lentiviral vectors incorporate a number of additional features that are of potential value for gene therapeutic applications. These include a larger packaging capacity, higher titers than γ‐retroviral vectors and, most importantly, a reduced risk of deregulating cellular genes due to its natural integration profile. The use of internal promoters to drive expression of the therapeutic transgene maC46 should further improve the safety profile of these new‐generation vectors, while an additional artificial splice acceptor (SA) into the 5‟UTR of the transgene over all elevate transgene expression. The rationale for this is that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells will be Summary 98 protected from enhancer‐mediated transactivation effects and also from potential side effects due to the aberrant expression of maC46 while at the same time the full clinical benefit for the patients is maintained. In order to find a suitable candidate for preclinical studies, two candidate therapeutic vectors harboring different regulatory elements were selected based on results from pilot experiments. The internal promoters used to drive expression of codon optimized maC46 were the PGK promoter and MPSV promoter. This work focuses on the transgene expression levels in lymphoid cells and antiviral activity. The issues of long term expression, propensity to methylation mediated silencing of the promoters, and genotoxicity were also touched. In a first step the performance of different vectors was evaluated in the human T cell lines. Based on promising data from ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the vector carrying the MPSV promoter along with intron were selected for in vivo transplantation experiments. In summary, the ex vivo data suggested the long term survival of lentiviral gene modified cells, along with maintained expression of introduced genes. It was observed that the expression of these constructs depends strongly on the activation and differentiation status of the targeted T cells. This regulation was not linked to any specific promotor. In vivo study shows that maC46 can be introduced into murine multiple hematopoietic lineages via lentiviral vector and expressed at high levels in their mulilineage progeny, without altering the hematopoiesis. There was no sign of any kind of hematopoietic or lymphoid malignancies. Although gene-modified lymphocytes persisted in-vivo, the downregulation of transgene expression was consistent with the ex-vivo observation. In contrast to that the T cells transplanted group showed delayed engraftment of donor cells and there was no expression of C46 in blood and lymphatic organs. . In conclusion, when considering HIV gene therapy focusing CD4+ T cells, potential problems of T cell activation status as related to the desired clinical effect must be addressed. These results might open the way for a gene therapy targeting mainly or exclusively activated T cells and could be exploited for immunostimulatory as well as suppressive approaches.
- Method developments in coupling gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (2011)
- Proteomic analysis is the large-scale identification and characterization of proteins including post translational modifications. Proteomics encompasses a number of approaches including bottom-up and top-down workflows which are widely used independently and complementary as tools for the successful study of protein species. However, up to the present day these techniques have not been able to overcome every analytical limitation. Mass spectrometry has played a vital role alongside proteomics in providing the required analytical means of detecting protein amounts down to the atomole range. Soft ionization methods such as matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) have permitted the transfer of peptides and intact proteins into the gas phase without extensive degradation. The introduction of recent developments in MALDI technology such as the highly sensitive 4-chloro-alpha-cyanocinnamic acid matrix (Cl-CCA) as well as the commercial availability of a MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap which boosts peptide mass accuracy below 3 parts per million (ppm), have offered new prospective in protein analysis. The aim of the current study is to incorporate these new aspects and provide further advancements in gel-based as well as gel-free proteomic workflows. Peptides of proteolytically digested proteins are routinely analyzed by means of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) often combined with MS/MS analyses to complement and substantiate PMF results by peptide sequence information. The most widely used protease for enzymatic digestion is trypsin, since it exhibits a very specific cleavage behavior limited to C-terminal hydrolyses after basic amino acids. However, less specific enzymes such as chymotrypsin, elastase and pepsin have emerged as useful tools in the analysis of particular protein classes e.g. membrane, cereal, and phosphorylated proteins. In this work a comprehensive bottom-up proteomic investigation including in-solution and in-gel protein digestions of analytes covering small to large, acidic to basic, and hydrophobic to hydrophilic proteins in combination with a series of less specific enzymes are presented in order to show the superiority of the novel MALDI matrix Cl-CCA. The Cl-CCA matrix proved to be highly superior compared to standard α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) since an average detection of more than 2- to 3-fold peptide amount was possible depending on the used protease and, therefore, resulting in strongly increased sequence coverage. Additionally, protein identification of chymotrypsin and elastase in-gel digested protein standards was evaluated. The MALDI-LTQ-Orbitrap providing peptide mass accuracy below and up to 3 ppm in combination with Cl-CCA as matrix and newly optimized digestion conditions led to unambiguous protein identifications of all chymotryptic digests outperforming its tryptic counterparts in the case of hydrophobic bacteriorhodopsin and α-globin from hemoglobin A (α-HgbA). In addition, significantly higher sequence coverage and increased number of detected peptides was acquired. Moreover, a proposed workaround for elastase digestions was capable of providing a solution for successful identification results. Apart from digestions of singly separated proteins, solution isoelectic focusing (sIEF) was evaluated. OFFGEL fractionation is an efficient means of fractionating peptides and proteins according to their isoelectric point (pI) values through immobilized pH gel (IPG) strips after which samples are recovered in solution. Consequently, an issue of peptide recovery arises as a category of peptides relatively insoluble to the recovery solution should be present. A method was developed including the scraping of gel matrix from the IPG strips and peptide extraction using acetonitrile as organic solvent in combination with analytical techniques such as nLC-MALDI-MS/MS for peptide identification. The nature of the peptide species remaining in-gel was analysed and attributed to peptide solubility. A general trend in which a high percentage of neutral and hydrophobic peptides remaining entrapped in the IPG gel strip was observed. The present work also examines a new top-down proteomic workflow involving protein elution from cleavable gels containing the labile crosslinker ethylene-glycol-diacrylate (EDA). Protein amounts of as low as 100 ng loaded onto EDA gels were detected using MALDI-TOF MS in the linear acquisition mode. Proteins from 8.5 up to 78 kDa were successfully measured including a hydrophobic 15 kDa core protein attaining a GRAVY score of +0.079. Additionally, the method was compatible with one dimensional protein separation as well as for 2-D IEF/SDS-PAGE. Lastly, two methods for protein identification were tested and found to be compatible to the proposed technique.
- T cell receptor diversity prevents T cell leukemia, lymphoma development / von Nabil Saleh Ahmed Al-Ghaili (2010)
- Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy that emerged from the attractive idea of targeting therapy at the molecular level. For many patients who suffer from genetic and acquired diseases that cannot be effectively treated by conventional treatment approaches gene therapy remains a huge hope of cure in spite of the hurdles regarding efficacy and safety that need to be overcome. The development of efficient gene transfer vehicles, mainly retroviral vectors, led to the first successful gene therapy trial, to treat patients suffering from X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (X-SCID) using gene modified stem cells (Hacein-Bey-Abina, Le Deist et al. 2002). Despite the success of this trial, it revealed the danger of retroviral insertional mutagenesis as a major adverse event of gene therapy using gene-modified stem cells (Hacein-Bey-Abina, von Kalle et al. 2003). In contrast to stem cells, T cells are relatively resistant to insertional mutagenesis and transformation even after transduction with potent oncogenes using retroviral vectors (Newrzela, Cornils et al. 2008). However, mature T cells can self-renew, proliferate and survive for long periods. These criteria are supposed to render T cells prone to transformation. Therefore, the questions of mature T cells transformability and the control mechanism limiting their transformation are still elusive.