Molekulargenetische Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe Pichia ciferrii
- Die nicht-konventionelle Hefe P. ciferrii produziert große Mengen der tetra-acetylierten Sphingoidbase Phytosphingosin (TAPS). Sphingoidbasen sind essentielle Komponenten des stratum corneums, der multilamellaren Barriere der menschlichen Haut, und daher in der Kosmetik-Industrie von großem Interesse. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollte die biotechnologische Produktion der Sphingoidbasen Phytosphingosin, Sphinganin und Sphingosin auf molekularbiologischer Ebene in P. ciferrii charakterisiert und optimiert werden. Die Hefe P. ciferrii konnte durch Etablierung einer einfachen und hoch-effizienten Transformations-Methode auf genetischer Ebene leicht zugänglich gemacht werden. Durch Inaktivierung des für NHEJ essentiellen PcLIG4 Gens konnte die Effizienz zielgerichteter genomischer Integrationen von transformierten DNA-Konstrukten von 1 % auf 87 % erhöht werden. Die Etablierung des Cre-loxP Systems erlaubte das mehrfache Verwenden eines Selektions-Markers wodurch sukzessiv mehrere genomische Integrationen in einem Stamm ermöglicht wurden. Durch diese Errungenschaften konnte das Ziel „Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe P. ciferrii“ im Folgenden erfolgreich verfolgt werden. Der initiale Schritt der Sphingoidbasen-Biosynthese ist die von der Serin-Palmitoyl-Transferase katalysierte Kondensation von L-Serin und Palmitoyl-CoA. Durch die Deletion von Genen, die am L-Serin-Katabolismus von P. ciferrii beteiligt sind (PcSHM1, PcSHM2und PcCHA1), konnte die de novo Sphingoidbasen-Biosynthese optimiert werden und führte in einem lig4? Stamm zu einer etwa dreifachen Erhöhung der TAPS-Produktion. Weitere Ansätze den (vermutlich durch L-Serin feed back regulierten) L-Serin-Biosyntheseweg bzw. die in vivo L-Serin-Verfügbarkeit zu optimieren, führten nicht zu einer gesteigerten TAPS-Produktion. Durch weitere Deletion und Überexpression von Genen des Sphingolipid-Stoffwechsels konnte die TAPS-Produktion jedoch um ein Vielfaches verbessert werden. So konnte ein Stamm konstruiert werden, der die Gene PcLCB1, PcLCB2 und PcSYR2 überexprimiert und Deletionen der Gene PcSHM1, PcSHM2, PcCHA1, PcLCB4 und PcORM12 trägt. Dieser Stamm (CSS.L4.O.L2.L1.S2) wies eine mehr als fünffach erhöhte maximale spezifische TAPS-Produktbildungsrate (q Pmax ) auf und produzierte mit 2 g * L rund siebenmal mehr TAPS als der lig4? Ausgangsstamm, weshalb ein Einsatz dieses Stammes für die industrielle TAPS-Produktion denkbar wäre. Ausgehend von einem für die TAPS- (und somit Sphingoidbasen-) Produktion optimierten Stamm sollten Stämme mit optimierter TriASa- oder TriASo-Produktion für industrielle Zwecke generiert werden. Es stellte sich allerding heraus, dass erhöhte Mengen dieser Sphingoidbasen wahrscheinlich wachstumshemmend für P. ciferrii sind, weshalb eine weitere Produktions-Optimierung nicht ohne Weiteres möglich ist. In einem Laborstamm gelang es jedoch, durch Konstruktion und anschließende Transformation eines optimierten integrativen Plasmids (trägt die Gene, die für die Produktion von Sphingosin bzw. TriASo nötig sind) eine TriASo-Produktion von bis zu 30 mg * g (BTM) zu erzielen, wobei gleichzeitig die Bildung des Nebenprodukts TriASa auf weniger als 4 mg * g (BTM)reduziert wurde. Weiterhin konnte durch Deletion von PcSCS7 in einem TriASo-Produktionsstamm die TriASa-Produktion mehr als vierfach reduziert werden. Die Bildung eines weiteren von P. ciferrii gebildeten Nebenproduktes [Tri-Acetyl-Sphingadienin (TriASd)] konnte durch Deletion des PcSLD1 Gens unterbunden werden. Nach Inaktivierung von PcSCH9 konnte eine fast 20 %ige Verbesserung der TriASo-Produktion erreicht werden. Es konnten zwei putative Acetyl-Transferasen identifiziert werden (PcAft2 und PcSli1), die an der Acetylierung von Phytosphingosin (zu TAPS), Sphinganin (zu TriASa) und Sphingosin (zu TriASo) beteiligt sind. Die Aufklärung und Optimierung dieser von PcAtf2 und PcSli1 katalysierten Schritte sind vielversprechende Ansatzpunkte die Sphingoidbasen-Produktion in P. ciferrii weiter zu optimieren.
Revision der Spinnenfamilie Psechridae (Arachnida: Araneae): Biodiversitätsforschung und Phylogenie mithilfe morphologischer und molekularer Methoden
- Die vorliegende, publikationsbasierte Dissertation, bestehend aus den drei Einzelpublikationen
Bayer (2011, 2012) und Bayer und Schönhofer (2012), verfolgte das
Ziel, die Spinnenfamilie Psechridae zu revidieren. Weiterhin sollten die
phylogenetische Position dieser Familie im System der höheren Webspinnen
(Araneomorphae) sowie die phylogenetischen Beziehungen der einzelnen Arten
innerhalb der beiden Gattungen der Psechridae untersucht werden. In Form von
morphologisch-taxonomischen Bearbeitungen wurden die beiden die Psechridae
bildenden Gattungen Psechrus und Fecenia revidiert, wobei sämtliches Typus-
Material sowie reichhaltiges, weiteres Material eingehend beschrieben, illustriert und
diagnostiziert wurde. Hierbei wurden auch intraspezifische Variabilität sowie die Prä-
Epigynen subadulter Weibchen, die in taxonomischen Arbeiten bislang nur eine
unwesentliche Rolle gespielt haben, beschrieben, illustriert und taxonomisch
ausgewertet. Zudem wurden im Rahmen dieser Untersuchungen bereits
Überlegungen über mögliche Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen innerhalb der beiden
Gattungen angestellt. ...
Immunrekonstitution nach allogener Stammzelltransplantation
- Eine verzögerte und mitunter unvollständige Immunrekonstitution nach allogener Stammzelltransplantation
(SZT) birgt ein erhöhtes Risiko für Infektionen und das Auftreten eines
Rezidivs. Adoptive Immuntherapien können dazu beitragen, die Immunrekonstitution zu
beschleunigen. Die Indikation hierzu ist jedoch streng geregelt, da eine zusätzliche Immuntherapie mit Risiken, wie z.B. dem Auftreten einer Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GvHD), verbunden ist.
Im Mittelpunkt dieser Arbeit steht die Untersuchung der Immunrekonstitution im Hinblick auf das Auftreten von Komplikationen und das Überleben nach SZT. Dazu wurde
ein multivariates Normwertmodell entwickelt, das die Beurteilung der Rekonstitution verschiedener
Leukozytensubpopulationen ermöglicht. Der Einfluss der Regeneration spezifischer Immunzellen wie Cytomegalievirus-spezifischer T-Zellen (CMV-CTLs) und regulatorischer T-Zellen (Tregs) auf den Verlauf nach SZT wurde insbesondere hinsichtlich CMV-bedingter Komplikationen, GvHD und Rezidiv untersucht.
Impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and populations of non-timber forest product-providing tree species in West Africa
- Savannas are the most important timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) providing ecosystems in West Africa. They have been shaped by traditional human land-use (i.e. agriculture, grazing, and harvesting) for thousands of years. In the last decades, land-use has drastically changed due to the rapid population growth and the growing production of cash-crop in West Africa and this process is still continuing. The percentage of land intensively used for agriculture has increased, while the length of fallow periods has decreased. Such changes have enormous ecological, economic, and social consequences. In the context of land-use changes, there is an urgent need to better understand and evaluate the impact of land-use on savannas. Such an understanding provides insights on appropriate management activities that ensure the maintenance of savannas and guarantee the availability of savanna products for subsistence and commercial use of rural West African people.
The major objective of the present thesis was to study the impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and diversity as well as on populations of two important NTFP-providing tree species in a semi-arid area in West Africa. The study area was located in the south-eastern part of Burkina Faso and comprised the protected W National Park and its adjacent communal area.
In the first study (chapter 2), I investigated in cooperation with a colleague from Burkina Faso (Blandine Nacoulma) the impact of land-use on the savanna vegetation. We analyzed which environmental factors determine the occurrence of the vegetation types and investigated the effect of land-use on vegetation structure and the occurrence of life forms and highly valued tree species. Furthermore, we tested whether land-use has an impact on plant diversity pattern and if this impact differed between the vegetation types and layers (woody and herb layer). Vegetation relevés were performed and the vegetation and plant diversity of the protected W National Park were compared with those of its surrounding communal area. Our results reveal five vegetation types occurring in both areas. Elevation and physical soil characteristics and thus soil water availability for plants played the most important role for the occurrence of the vegetation types. The influence of land-use on plant diversity differed between the five vegetation types and the two layers. The impact was highest on the vegetation types with the most favorable soil conditions for cultivation and lowest on rocky habitats with poor soils. While the diversity of the woody layer was increased under human land-use, the diversity of the herb layer was diminished. Overall, as land-use effects were not only negative, our findings suggest that land-use does not automatically lead to a loss of plant species and to a degradation of savanna habitats. We conclude that both protected and communal areas are of great importance for the conservation of savanna vegetation and diversity. Our study highlights furthermore the importance of different management strategies for each vegetation type.
In the following two studies (chapter 3 and 4), the impact of land-use - and in particular of harvesting - on populations of Adansonia digitata L., the baobab tree, and Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr. was examined. These two tree species were chosen as they provide several NTFPs for the local population and as they show different levels of human protection and opposed life histories. Thus, they may react differently to land-use. Stands of the protected W National Park were compared with those of its surrounding communal area (in fallows, croplands, and villages). I applied dendrometric methods to study the population structures and combined it with rates and patterns of NTFP-harvesting (debarking and chopping/pruning). Furthermore, the impact of land-use and harvesting on the fruit production of A. digitata and on the sprouting ability of A. leiocarpa were studied. The inverse J-shaped size class distribution curve indicates that the stands of A. digitata were in a healthy state in the park, while the low number of smaller size classes in fallows, croplands, and villages may give evidence of an ageing population. However, a high number of seedlings were recorded in villages. The stands of A. leiocarpa were also in healthy states in the park and likewise in fallows. In contrast, the absence of saplings gives evidence of a declining population in croplands. Both species were strongly harvested by local people and harvesting was tree size-specific. Pruning in interaction with tree-size had a significant impact on fruit production of A. digitata. While smaller trees were more vulnerable to pruning, bigger trees benefited from slight-pruning. A. leiocarpa had a great ability to respond to chopping by sprouting. The sprouting ability increased even with higher chopping intensity. Results suggest that despite the intense harvesting and the land-use impact, populations of both species are still well preserved. While A. digitata can withstand the harvesting and land-use pressure by its longevity, extremely low adult mortality rates, and particularly due to positive human influences, A. leiocarpa is able to withstand the use pressure by its fast growing, high recruitment, and high sprouting ability. I conclude that a none protected tree species (A. leiocarpa) might not necessarily be at higher risk to the harvesting and land-use impact than a protected tree species (A. digitata) as the adverse impact of harvesting and land-use can be compensated by its specific life history.
Important additional information to such ecological findings can be provided by local people. Learning from traditional knowledge and management systems of local people will help to produce culturally and ecologically reasonable conservation and management strategies. Thus, I investigated local uses and management strategies of A. digitata and A. leiocarpa in the last two studies (chapter 5 and 6). Quantitative ethnobotanical surveys among the Gulimanceba people were conducted in the communal area in order to document uses of the different plant parts, harvesting modes, perceptions about the population status, and conservation status of both species. Hereby, differences in knowledge between gender, generations, and people from different villages were tested. Interviews reveal that both species are harvested for multipurpose and emphasize the high importance of both species for local people. Especially the leaves and fruits of A. digitata add valuable minerals and vitamins to the otherwise micronutrient-“poor” staple crops of the Gulimanceba people. In comparison with other studies in West Africa, it has turned out that people in this area could benefit even more from A. leiocarpa, e.g. for dyeing of clothes, for treatment of malaria and skin problems. Local knowledge did not differ between genders and generations, while it slightly differed between people from different villages. The lack of age differences suggests that the traditional knowledge about these two species is passed on from one generation to another. Differences between people from different villages might be explained by influences from the neighboring countries Niger and Benin. Current local harvesting modes and management strategies of both species resulted in sustainable use. However, ongoing land-use intensifications require adapted harvesting and management techniques to guarantee the persistence of these economically important species. These results provide, in combination with the ecological findings (chapter 3 and 4), appropriate management recommendations for A. digitata and A. leiocarpa that are reliable under currently practiced management strategies.
Nephronectin regulates cardiac valve development via BMP4-HAS2 signaling in zebrafish
- It has been estimated that about 1% of live births carry severe congenital heart
defects and 20-30% among them have valve malformations. Despite its
medical importance the underlying cause of many valvular diseases remains
undiscovered. Thus, it is important to identify genes that play a crucial role in
cardiac valve formation and maturation.
A temporal RNA expression analysis of heart development suggested
that the extracellular matrix protein Nephronectin might be a novel regulator of
valve development and/or trabeculation. Nephronectin is transiently expressed
during rat heart development at the time of heart valve morphogenesis and
trabeculation. Moreover, the extracellular matrix is known to be crucial for
organogenesis. It is a complex, dynamic and critical component that regulates
cell behavior by modulating the activity, bioavailability, or presentation of
growth factors to cell surface receptors.
In order to verify the hypothesis that Nephronectin is a novel regulator of
valve formation and/or trabeculation the zebrafish was chosen as model
system. Females are able to spawn at intervals of 5 days laying hundreds of
eggs in each clutch. Development progresses rapidly with precursors to all
major organs appearing within 36 hours post fertilization. Zebrafish embryos
develop externally, are translucent and continue to grow for several days
despite developing severely malformed, non functional hearts. In addition, gene
expression can be easily modulated.
During the present study it has been shown that Nephronectin
expression is correlated to valve development and trabeculation. Morpholinomediated
knockdown of Nephronectin in zebrafish caused failure of valve
formation and trabeculation resulting in > 85% lethality at 7 days post
Cardiac valve formation is initiated at the junction of atrium and ventricle
and is characterized by extracellular matrix deposition and endocardial cell
differentiation. In accordance with the above-described phenotype the earliest
observed abnormality in Nephronectin morphants was an extended tube like
structure at the atrio-ventricular boundary. In addition, the expression of
myocardial genes involved in cardiac valve formation (cspg2, fibulin1, tbx2b,
bmp4) was expanded and endocardial cells along the extended tube like
structure exhibited characteristics of atrio-ventricular cells (has2, notch1b and
Alcam expression, cuboidal cell shape). Inhibition of has2 in Nephronectin
morphants rescued the endocardial but not the myocardial expansion. In
contrast, diminishment of BMP signaling in npnt morphants resulted in reduced
ectopic expression of myocardial and endocardial atrio-ventricular markers.
Taken together, these results identify Nephronectin as a novel upstream
regulator of BMP4-HAS2 signaling playing a crucial role in atrio-ventricular
Die Rolle von Stat3 in Gliomen
- Pharmakologische und genetische Inhibition von Stat3 und deren Auswirkungen im syngenen Maus-Gliom-Modell
Cell specific crosstalk of the Wnt/β-catenin and the Shh pathway: implications for tumor development and regression
- The canonical Wnt/β-catenin and the Shh pathway as well as the Notch signaling cascade
are key regulators in stem cell biology and are independently associated with the development
of cancer. Despite the knowledge of a balanced signaling for cellular maintenance, the
fundamental biochemical mechanisms of crosstalk are still poorly understood. This study
demonstrates that the outcome of interaction between Wnt and Shh is cell type specific. A
combined inhibitory mechanism of the Shh and Notch2/Jagged2 pathways on dominant
active β-catenin signaling in the adult tongue epithelium keeps Wnt/β-catenin signaling
restricted to physiological tolerable levels. In the opposite crosstalk the activation of
Wnt/β-catenin signaling in medulloblastoma (MB) of the Shh subtype, in turn inhibits the Hh
The inhibitory mechanism of Shh and Notch2/Jagged2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling is
independent of the degradation complex of β-catenin and takes place inside the nucleus.
Furthermore, the negative feedback on Wnt/β-catenin signaling by the Shh pathway relies
on transcriptional activity of Gli1/2A. Inhibition of Gli1/2A with the specific inhibitor GANT61
abrogated the negative impact of Shh on β-catenin signaling in vitro. Although the negative
feedback loop of Shh is still functional in human SCC25 cells, the inhibitory effect of
Notch2/Jagged2 is lost and contributes to the cancerogenic phenotype of these cells. In the
inverse situation, the activation of β−catenin signaling has a negative feedback on
constantly active Shh signaling and significantly inhibits the Hh pathway. This was shown in
Ptch+/- and Math1-Cre:SmoM2Fl/+ MB tumor spheres in vitro, in which inhibition of sphere
formation and growth was observed and Hh target gene transcription was down-regulated.
This demonstrates for the first time that the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling
in primary MB cells with a Hh pathway over-activation has a negative effect on the growth of
these cells in vitro.
In summary the results show that crosstalk of Wnt/β-catenin and Shh signaling has context
specific outcome on pathway activity. Elucidation of the molecular interactions will improve
our understanding of Wnt and Hh associated tumors and contribute to the development of
new therapeutic strategies.
Biochemical characterization of Fucoxanthin Chlorophyll a/c binding proteins in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
- Diatoms contribute largely to the total primary production of the ecosphere and are key players in global biogeochemical cycles. Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four membranes owing to their secondary endosymbiotic origin. Their thylakoids are arranged into three parallel bands and differentiation of thylakoid membranes into grana or stroma is not observed. The fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins act as the light harvesting proteins and play a role in photoprotection during excess light as well. The diatom genome encodes three different families of antenna proteins. Family I are the classical light harvesting proteins called "Lhcf". Family II are the red algae related Lhca-R1/2 proteins called "Lhcr" and family III are the photoprotective LI818 related proteins called "Lhcx".
All known Fcps have a molecular weight in the range of 17-23 kDa. They are membrane proteins and have shorter loops and termini compared to LHCs of higher plants and are therefore extremely hydrophobic. This makes the isolation of single specific Fcps using routine protein purification techniques difficult.
The purification of a specific Fcp containing complex has not been achieved so far and until this is done several questions concerning light harvesting antenna systems of diatoms cannot be answered. For e.g. Which proteins interact specifically? Are various Fcps differently pigmented? Which pigments interact with each other and how? Which proteins contribute to photosystem specific antenna systems? Can pure Fcps be reconstituted into crystals like LHCII proteins? In order to answer these questions specific Fcp containing complexes have to be purified. ...
The socio-economic importance of non-timber forest products for rural livelihoods in West African savanna ecosystems: current status and future trends
- For millennia, rural West African communities living in or adjacent of savanna ecosystems have been collecting components of local plant species (e.g. fruits, leaves, bark) in order to fulfil essential household subsistence needs (alimentation, medical care, energy demand etc.), to generate cash income and to overcome times of (financial) crisis. Thus, these non-timber forest products (NTFPs) make a considerable contribution to the well-being of local households. However, climate and land use change severely impact West African savanna ecosystems and, consequently, the safe-guarding of dependent rural livelihoods. The conversion of savanna area into cultivated land for subsistence farming owing to the ongoing population growth, as well as the progressive promotion of cash crops (e.g. cotton) is ever-increasing. As a consequence, present land-use management in West Africa has to cope with serious trade-offs. Within this decision-making NTFPs have been constantly understated due to a lack of appropriate economic figures to use within common cost-benefit analysis, and, thus, have been frequently outcompeted by seemingly more profitable land-use options. Therefore, it is crucial to provide appropriate economic data for NTFPs in order to create positive incentives for both decision-makers and NTFP beneficiaries to conserve NTFP-providing trees. The key finding of this analysis is that income from NTFPs accounts for 39 % on average of an annual total household income in Northern Benin, representing the second largest income share next to crop income and proving the respective households to be economically heavily dependent on NTFPs. Thereby, socio-economic characteristics of NTFP users tremendously shape their preferences for woody species. Particularly ethnicity has a major impact on the species used and the economic return obtained by them. Moreover, the study investigated the impacts of climate and land use change on the economic benefits derived from the three economically most important tree species in the region Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata in 2050: Environmental changes will have primarily negative effects on the economic returns from all the three species. At large, the study underpins the economic relevance of NTFPs for rural communities in West African savannas and, consequently, the necessity to appropriately sustain them in order to safe-guard local livelihoods. Providing key figures on the current and future economic benefits obtained from NTFPs can augment common cost-benefit analysis, and, delivering detailed information about peoples’ use preferences for local species, this study clearly contributes to improve the basis of decision-making with reference to local land-use policies.
European pea crabs - taxonomy, morphology, and host-ecology (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae)
- Pinnotherids are small crabs symbiotic to a variety of invertebrates. The European species infest bivalves and sea squirts. Their way of life is parasitic and poses a threat to commercially exploited bivalves. While juveniles of both sexes still look very similar - being agile swimmers and partially free living - a metamorphosis takes place in the female after mating and results in a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Thereafter, the female settles in its host definitely and is morphologically strongly adapted to the parasitic life phase. A very high reproductive output was demonstrated among several pea crab species infesting bivalves. Despite from that, hardly any information is present in the literature on the pinnotherids’ reproductive biology and the underlying morphology.
Due to their cryptic way of life, the sexual dimorphism, and the different morphotypes of the female, the taxonomy of the Pinnotheridae is a serious challenge. Two widely accepted species are recognized on European coasts: Pinnotheres pisum and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres. Pinnotheres pectunculi was so far only known from the bivalve Glycymeris glycymeris in its type locality Roscoff (France), while Pinnotheres ascidicola and Pinnotheres marioni were described as living exclusively in ascidians without careful comparison with the previously described species. In order to produce standardized comparative descriptions, pea crabs were collected and studied from different hosts and localities in the Northeast Atlantic and in the Mediterranean. Nepinnotheres pinnotheres and Pinnotheres pisum were redescribed with consideration to characters of female and male. According to our morphological analysis, Pinnotheres ascidicola and Pinnotheres marioni are junior synonyms of Nepinnotheres pinnotheres, whereas the status of Pinnotheres pectunculi as a valid species was ascertained. Important characters are the mouthparts, the male gonopods, and especially chelipeds that showed consistent characteristics among different crab stages of both sexes.
Based on our sampling, we estimated the host-range of the European species. Nepinnotheres pinnotheres lives in ascidians and in the pen shell Pinna nobilis. Pinnotheres pisum infests numerous bivalve species - Pinna nobilis included. For Pinnotheres pectunculi novel host records are presented, all from the bivalve family Veneridae. Furthermore, feeding of the Pinnotheres-species was observed. They use a setae comb ventrally on the claw to brush mucus (and the accumulated food particles) from the bivalve gills. Feeding strategies and host-ecology will be thoroughly discussed in consideration to other Pinnotheridae.
We investigated the reproductive systems of European pinnotherids by histological methods, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy.
The Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored until the oocytes are mature and transported into the spermathecae, where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the ‘concave pattern’. Musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina-wall to control the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum.
The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the ‘holocrine transfer tissue’. At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multi-layered glandular epithelium, which has a holocrine mode secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium, which was to date only found in fiddler crabs of the genus Uca.
The male internal reproductive system consists of paired testes and corresponding vasa deferentia. The sperm morphology of pinnotherids conforms to other thoracotremes, with slight differences between Nepinnotheres pinnotheres and Pinnotheres pisum. Spermatozoa become enveloped into spermatophores in the secretory proximal vas deferens. The medial vas deferens is strongly enlarged and stores spermatophores embedded in seminal plasma. The distal vas deferens holds tubular appendices, which extend into the ventral cephalothorax and slightly into the pleon. These appendices produce and store vast quantities of seminal plasma. The copulatory system of the Brachyura is formed by paired penes and two pairs of gonopods, which function in sperm transfer. In pinnotherids, the long first gonopods transfers the sperm mass to the female. It holds the ejaculatory canal inside, which opens proximally and distally. The second gonopod is solid, short and conical. During copulation, the penis and the second gonopod are inserted into the base of the tubular first gonopod. The second gonopod functions in the transport of the sperm mass inside the ejaculatory canal towards its distal opening. The specific shape of the second gonopod is strongly adapted for a sealing of the tubular first gonopod with longitudinal cuticle foldings that interlock inside the first gonopod. The presented results are discussed concerning their function in reproduction and in respect of the systematic account.
The role of secretion in sperm transfer, storage and fertilization among the Brachyura is still under debate. It is notable that structure and function of secretion are more complex in pinnotherids and probably more efficient than in other brachyuran crabs, which will be discussed, in view of the parasitic way of life and the high fecundity of pinnotherids.