Investigations on the transport of high-intensity beams using particle-in-cell simulations

  • For the transport of high-intensity hadron beams in low-energy beam lines of linear accelerators, the compensation of space charge forces by the accumulation of particles of opposite charge is an important effect, reducing the required focusing strength and potentially the emittance growth due to space charge forces. In this thesis, space charge compensation was studied by including the secondary particles in particle-in-cell simulations. For this purpose, a new electrostatic particle-in-cell code named bender was developed. The software was tested using known self-consistent solutions for an electron plasma confined in an external potential as well as for a KV distributed beam in a periodic focusing lattice. For the simulation of compensation, models for residual gas ionisation by proton and electron impact were implemented. The compensation process was studied for a 120 keV, 100 mA proton beam transported through a short drift section. Various features in the particle distributions were identified, which can not explained by a uniform reduction in the electric field of the beam. These were tied to the presence of thermal electrons confined within the beam potential. Using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, their distribution could be reproduced and their influence on the beam for a wider range of parameters studied. However, the observed temperatures show a significant numerical influence. The hypothesis was formed, that stochastical heating present in particle-in-cell simulations is the mechanism leading to the formation of the observed (partial) thermal equilibrium. For the low-energy beam transport line of the Frankfurt neutron source FRANZ, bender was used to predict the pulse shaping in the novel ExB chopper system. The code was also used for the design and the study of an electron lens for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Aberrations due to guiding center drifts and the strong electric field of the electron beam as well as the current limits in such a system were investigated.

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Author:Daniel Noll
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Ulrich RatzingerORCiD, Joachim MaruhnORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2016/12/06
Year of first Publication:2016
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2016/11/22
Release Date:2016/12/06
Page Number:118
Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht