Commercial preparations of pesticides exert higher toxicity and cause changes at subcellular level in earthworm Eisenia andrei

  • Background: The environmental impact of pesticides has been an increasingly discussed issue over the last decades. Constant usage of pesticides presents a burden for soil and causes a decrease in its health, including the negative effects on earthworms which are indicators for soil quality. The objective of this research was the assessment of the effects of two insecticides and two herbicides on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Namely, the following active ingredients and respective commercial preparations were investigated: esfenvalerate (Sumialfa), thiacloprid (Calypso), dimethenamid-p (Frontier) and prosulfocarb (Filon). Lethal concentrations (48 h) of both active ingredient and commercial preparations were determined using the filter paper contact test. Results: The results showed that Calypso and Frontier were significantly more toxic than the active ingredient. Therefore, all further measurements were performed after exposure of earthworms to the commercial preparations of the pesticides. Specifically, several enzymatic biomarkers and multixenobiotic resistance activity were assessed. Additionally, a fluorescence-based assay for the determination of oxidative stress was established. Significant changes were detected for catalase, carboxylesterase and multixenobiotic activities after 48-h exposures. Also, a significant change in oxidative stress parameters could be observed for both Calypso and Frontier. Conclusions: The obtained results show that commercial preparations can be more toxic than the active ingredients, and the formulations being distributed in the environment can affect earthworms on a molecular level already after short exposures. This emphasizes the importance of a more integrated eco-toxicological assessment of commercial pesticide preparations not to underestimate their effects on the environment.

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Author:Carina LackmannORCiDGND, Mirna VelkiORCiD, Dora BjedovORCiD, Thomas-Benjamin SeilerORCiDGND, Henner HollertORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Environmental sciences Europe
Place of publication:Berlin ; Heidelberg
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/02/02
Date of first Publication:2021/02/02
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/10/20
Tag:Acute toxicity; Commercial pesticide preparations; Earthworms; Multixenobiotic resistance activity; Oxidative stress
Issue:art. 12
Article Number:12
Page Number:15
First Page:1
Last Page:15
Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. The authors kindly thank the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU, German Federal Environmental Foundation) for a personal scholarship granted to Carina Lackmann and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for an equipment grant awarded to Dr. Mirna Velki.
Institutes:Biowissenschaften / Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und Diversität
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0