Regulated iron siderophore production of the halophilic archaeon haloferax volcanii

  • Iron is part of many redox and other enzymes and, thus, it is essential for all living beings. Many oxic environments have extremely low concentrations of free iron. Therefore, many prokaryotic species evolved siderophores, i.e., small organic molecules that complex Fe3+ with very high affinity. Siderophores of bacteria are intensely studied, in contrast to those of archaea. The haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii contains a gene cluster that putatively encodes siderophore biosynthesis genes, including four iron uptake chelate (iuc) genes. Underscoring this hypothesis, Northern blot analyses revealed that a hexacistronic transcript is generated that is highly induced under iron starvation. A quadruple iuc deletion mutant was generated, which had a growth defect solely at very low concentrations of Fe3+, not Fe2+. Two experimental approaches showed that the wild type produced and exported an Fe3+-specific siderophore under low iron concentrations, in contrast to the iuc deletion mutant. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that haloarchaea obtained the gene cluster by lateral transfer from bacteria and enabled the prediction of enzymatic functions of all six gene products. Notably, a biosynthetic pathway is proposed that starts with aspartic acid, uses several group donors and citrate, and leads to the hydroxamate siderophore Schizokinen.
Author:Natalie Niessen, Jörg SoppaORCiD
Parent Title (English):Biomolecules
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2020/07/17
Date of first Publication:2020/07/17
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2020/08/13
Tag:Archaea; Haloferax volcanii; O-CAS assay; Schizokinen; deletion mutant; hydroxamate; iron starvation; siderophore
Issue:7, art. 1072
Page Number:17
First Page:1
Last Page:17
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Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0