TextImager-VSD : large scale verb sense disambiguation and named entity recognition in the context of TextImager

  • The World Wide Web is increasing the number of freely accessible textual data, which has led to an increasing interest in research in the field of computational linguistics (CL). This area of research addresses theoretical research to answer the question of how language and knowledge must be represented in order to understand and produce language. For this purpose, mathematical models are being developed to capture the phenomena at various levels in human languages. Another field of research experiencing an increase in interest that is closely related to CL is Natural Language Processing (NLP), which is primarily concerned with developing effective and efficient data structures and algorithms that implement the mathematical models of CL. With increasing interest in these areas, NLP tools are rapidly and frequently being developed incorporating different CL models to handle different levels of language. The open source trend has benefited all those in the scientific community who develop and use these tools. Due to yet undefined I/O standards for NLP, however, the rapid growth leads to a heterogeneous NLP landscape in which the specializations of the tools cannot benefit from each other because of interface incompatibility. In addition, the constantly growing amount of freely accessible text data requires a high-performance processing solution. This performance can be achieved by horizontal and vertical scaling of hardware and software. For these reasons the first part of this thesis deals with the homogenization of the NLP tool landscape, which is achieved by a standardized framework called TextImager. It is a cloud computing based multi-service, multi-server, multi-pipeline, multi-database, multi-user, multi-representation and multi-visual framework that already provides a variety of tools for various languages to process various levels of linguistic complexity. This makes it possible to answer research questions that require the processing of a large amount of data at several linguistic levels. The integrated tools and the homogenized I/O data streams of the TextImager make it possible to combine the built-in tools in two dimensions: (1) the horizontal dimension to achieve NLP task-specific improvement (2) the orthogonal dimension to implement CL models that are based on multiple linguistic levels and thus rely on a combination of different NLP tools. The second part of this thesis therefore deals with the creation of models for the horizontal combination of tools in order to show the possibilities for improvement using the example of the NLP task of Named Entity Recognition (NER). The TextImager offers several tools for each NLP task, most of which have been trained on the same training basis, but can produce different results. This means that each of the tools processes a subset of the data correctly and at the same time makes errors in another subset. In order to process as large a subset of the data as possible correctly, a horizontal combination of tools is therefore required. Machine learning-based voting mechanisms called LSTMVoter and CRFVoter were developed for this purpose, which allow a combination of the outputs of individual NLP tools so that better partial data results can be achieved. In this thesis the benefit of Voter is shown using the example of the NER task, whose results flow back into the TextImager tool landscape. The third part of this thesis deals with the orthogonal combination of TextImager tools to accomplish the verb sense disambiguation (VSD). The CL question is investigated, how verb senses should be modelled in order to disambiguate them computatively. Verbsenses have a syntagmatic-paradigmatic relationship with surrounding words. Therefore, preprocessing on several linguistic levels and consequently an orthogonal combination of NLP tools is required to disambiguate verbs on a computational level. With TextImager’s integrated NLP landscape, it is now possible to perform these preprocessing steps to induce the information needed for the VSD. The newly developed NLP tool for the VSD has been integrated into the TextImager tool landscape, enabling the analysis of a further linguistic level. This thesis presents a framework that homogenizes the NLP tool landscape in a cluster-based way. Methods for combining the integrated tools are implemented to improve the analysis of a specific linguistic level or to develop tools that open up new linguistic levels.

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Author:Wahed Hemati
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Alexander MehlerORCiDGND, Visvanathan RameshORCiD
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2020
Year of first Publication:2019
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2019/12/17
Release Date:2020/10/02
Page Number:174
Institutes:Informatik und Mathematik
Dewey Decimal Classification:0 Informatik, Informationswissenschaft, allgemeine Werke / 00 Informatik, Wissen, Systeme / 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht