Severe traumatic injury induces phenotypic and functional changes of neutrophils and monocytes

  • Background: Severe traumatic injury has been associated with high susceptibility for the development of secondary complications caused by dysbalanced immune response. As the first line of the cellular immune response, neutrophils and monocytes recruited to the site of tissue damage and/or infection, are divided into three different subsets according to their CD16/CD62L and CD16/CD14 expression, respectively. Their differential functions have not yet been clearly understood. Thus, we evaluated the phenotypic changes of neutrophil and monocyte subsets among their functionality regarding oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity in severely traumatized patients. Methods: Peripheral blood was withdrawn from severely injured trauma patients (TP; n = 15, ISS ≥ 16) within the first 12 h post-trauma and from healthy volunteers (HV; n = 15) and stimulated with fMLP and PMA. CD16dimCD62Lbright (immature), CD16brightCD62Lbright (mature) and CD16brightCD62Ldim (CD62Llow) neutrophil subsets and CD14brightCD16− (classical), CD14brightCD16+ (intermediate) and CD14dimCD16+ (non-classical) monocyte subsets of HV and TP were either directly analyzed by flow cytometry or the examined subsets of HV were sorted first by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and subsequently analyzed. Subset-specific generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis were evaluated. Results: In TP, the counts of immature neutrophils were significantly increased vs. HV. The numbers of mature and CD62Ldim neutrophils remained unchanged but the production of ROS was significantly enhanced in TP vs. HV and the stimulation with fMLP significantly increased the generation of ROS in the mature and CD62Ldim neutrophils of HV. The counts of phagocyting neutrophils did not change but the mean phagocytic capacity showed an increasing trend in TP. In TP, the monocytes shifted toward the intermediate phenotype, whereas the classical and non-classical monocytes became less abundant. ROS generation was significantly increased in all monocyte subsets in TP vs. HV and PMA stimulation significantly increased those level in both, HV and TP. However, the PMA-induced mean ROS generation was significantly lower in intermediate monocytes of TP vs. HV. Sorting of monocyte and neutrophil subsets revealed a significant increase of ROS and decrease of phagocytic capacity vs. whole blood analysis. Conclusions: Neutrophils and monocytes display a phenotypic shift following severe injury. The increased functional abnormalities of certain subsets may contribute to the dysbalanced immune response and attenuate the antimicrobial function and thus, may represent a potential therapeutic target. Further studies on isolated subsets are necessary for evaluation of their physiological role after severe traumatic injury.

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Author:Andrea JanicováGND, Nils BeckerORCiD, Baolin XuGND, Marija Simic, Laurens NoackORCiD, Nils WagnerORCiDGND, Andreas J. Müller, Jessica BertrandORCiDGND, Ingo MarziORCiDGND, Borna ReljaORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Journal of Clinical Medicine
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/09/14
Date of first Publication:2021/09/14
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/04/11
Tag:CD14; CD16; CD62L; PMA; fMLP; phagocytosis; reactive oxygen species; traumatic injury
Issue:18, art. 4139
Page Number:19
First Page:1
Last Page:19
This research was funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, grant number RE 3304/8-1.
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0