Glutamic acid-rich proteins of rod photoreceptors are natively unfolded

  • The outer segment of vertebrate photoreceptors is a specialized compartment that hosts all the signaling components required for visual transduction. Specific to rod photoreceptors is an unusual set of three glutamic acid-rich proteins (GARPs) as follows: two soluble forms, GARP1 and GARP2, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (GARP′ part) of the B1 subunit of the cyclic GMP-gated channel. GARPs have been shown to interact with proteins at the rim of the disc membrane. Here we characterized native GARP1 and GARP2 purified from bovine rod photoreceptors. Amino acid sequence analysis of GARPs revealed structural features typical of “natively unfolded” proteins. By using biophysical techniques, including size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, NMR spectroscopy, and circular dichroism, we showed that GARPs indeed exhibit a large degree of intrinsic disorder. Analytical ultracentrifugation and chemical cross-linking showed that GARPs exist in a monomer/multimer equilibrium. The results suggested that the function of GARP proteins is linked to their structural disorder. They may provide flexible spacers or linkers tethering the cyclic GMP-gated channel in the plasma membrane to peripherin at the disc rim to produce a stack of rings of these protein complexes along the long axis of the outer segment. GARP proteins could then provide the environment needed for protein interactions in the rim region of discs.

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Author:Renu Batra-SafferlingORCiDGND, Karin Abarca HeidemannGND, Heinz Gerd KörschenGND, Christos TziatziosGND, Matthias StoldtORCiDGND, Ivan Budyak, Dieter WillboldORCiDGND, Harald SchwalbeORCiDGND, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Ulrich Benjamin KauppORCiDGND
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Journal of biological chemistry
Publisher:American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publications
Place of publication:Bethesda, Md
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/01/04
Year of first Publication:2006
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2023/10/27
Page Number:12
First Page:1449
Last Page:1460
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International