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The N/Z ratio of free nucleons from collisions of neutron-rich nuclei as a function of their momentum is studied by means of Isospin dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics. We find that this ratio is not only sensitive to the form of the density dependence of the symmetry potential energy but also its strength determined by the symmetry energy coe cient. The uncertainties about the symmetry energy coe cient influence the accuracy of probing the density dependence of the symmetry energy by means of the N/Z ratio of free nucleons of neutron-rich nuclei.

Probing the density dependence of the symmetry potential in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions
(2005)

Based on the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, the effects of the density-dependent symmetry potential for baryons and of the Coulomb potential for produced mesons are investigated for neutron-rich heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The calculated results of the Delta-/Delta++ and pi -/pi + production ratios show a clear beam-energy dependence on the density-dependent symmetry potential, which is stronger for the pi -/pi + ratio close to the pion production threshold. The Coulomb potential of the mesons changes the transverse momentum distribution of the pi -/pi + ratio significantly, though it alters only slightly the pi- and pi+ total yields. The pi- yields, especially at midrapidity or at low transverse momenta and the p-/pi+ ratios at low transverse momenta, are shown to be sensitive probes of the density-dependent symmetry potential in dense nuclear matter. The effect of the density-dependent symmetry potential on the production of both, K0 and K+ mesons, is also investigated.

The influence of the isospin-independent, isospin- and momentum-dependent equation of state (EoS), as well as the Coulomb interaction on the pion production in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions (HICs) is studied for both isospin-symmetric and neutron-rich systems. The Coulomb interaction plays an important role in the reaction dynamics, and strongly influences the rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of charged pions. It even leads to the pi- pi+ ratio deviating slightly from unity for isospin-symmetric systems. The Coulomb interaction between mesons and baryons is also crucial for reproducing the proper pion flow since it changes the behavior of the directed and the elliptic flow components of pions visibly. The EoS can be better investigated in neutron-rich system if multiple probes are measured simultaneously. For example, the rapidity and the transverse momentum distributions of the charged pions, the pi- pi+ ratio, the various pion flow components, as well as the difference of pi+-pi- flows. A new sensitive observable is proposed to probe the symmetry potential energy at high densities, namely the transverse momentum distribution of the elliptic flow difference [Delta v_2^pi+ - pi-(p_t rm c.m.].

Several observables of unbound nucleons which are to some extent sensitive to the medium modifications of nucleon-nucleon elastic cross sections in neutron-rich intermediate energy heavy ion collisions are investigated. The splitting effect of neutron and proton effective masses on cross sections is discussed. It is found that the transverse flow as a function of rapidity, the Q_zz as a function of momentum, and the ratio of halfwidths of the transverse to that of longitudinal rapidity distribution R_t/l are very sensitive to the medium modifications of the cross sections. The transverse momentum distribution of correlation functions of two-nucleons does not yield information on the in-medium cross section.

We investigate the sensitivity of several observables to the density dependence of the symmetry potential within the microscopic transport model UrQMD (ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model). The same systems are used to probe the symmetry potential at both low and high densities. The influence of the symmetry potentials on the yields of pi-, pi+, the pi-/pi+ ratio, the n/p ratio of free nucleons and the t/3He ratio are studied for neutron-rich heavy ion collisions (208Pb+208Pb, 132Sn+124Sn, 96Zr+96Zr) at E_b=0.4A GeV. We find that these multiple probes provides comprehensive information on the density dependence of the symmetry potential.

The rapidity dependence of the single- and double- neutron to proton ratios of nucleon emission from isospin-asymmetric but mass-symmetric reactions Zr+Ru and Ru+Zr at energy range 100 ~ 800 A MeV and impact parameter range 0 ~ 8 fm is investigated. The reaction system with isospin-asymmetry and mass-symmetry has the advantage of simultaneously showing up the dependence on the symmetry energy and the degree of the isospin equilibrium. We find that the beam energy- and the impact parameter dependence of the slope parameter of the double neutron to proton ratio (F_D) as function of rapidity are quite sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, especially at energies E_b ~ 400 A MeV and reduced impact parameters around 0.5. Here the symmetry energy effect on the F_D is enhanced, as compared to the single neutron to proton ratio. The degree of the equilibrium with respect to isospin (isospin mixing) in terms of the F_D is addressed and its dependence on the symmetry energy is also discussed.

An investigation of the transition to delta matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Delta-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m* and K, the Delta isomer exists at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 if beta=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Delta, the Delta density at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 and temperature ~ 0.4–0.5 fm-1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding.

We study the transition from fusion-fission phenomena at about 20 MeV/nucleon multifragmentation at 100–200 MeV/nucleon in the reaction 16O+80Br employing the quantum molecular dynamics model. The time evolution of the density and mass distribution, the charged-particle multiplicity, and spectra as well as angular distributions of light particles are investigated. The results exhibit the transition of the disassembly mechanism, but no sharp change is found. The results are in good agreement with recently measured 4-Pi data.

A self-consistent relativistic integral-di erential equation of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type for the N*(1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The closed time-path Green s function technique and semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approxima- tions are employed in the derivation. The non-equilibrium RBUU-type equation for the N*(1440) is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N,Delta and N*(1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N,Delta and N*(1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically, which can be directly used in the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The theoreticalprediction of the free pp - pp* (1440) cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data. We calculate the in-medium N+N - N+N* , N* +N - N+N and N*+N - N* +N cross sections in cold nuclear matter up to twice the nuclear matter density. The influence of different choices of the N* N* coupling strengths, which can not be obtained through fitting certain experimental data, are discussed. The results show that the density dependence of predicted in-medium cross sections are sensitive to the N* N* coupling strengths used. An evident density dependence will appear when a large scalar coupling strength of g^(sigma) N*N* is assumed. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 25.70.-z; 21.65.+f