Charge Reduction and Thermodynamic Stabilization of Substrate RNAs Inhibit RNA Editing
Andreas J. Reuss
H. Ulrich Göringer
- African trypanosomes cause a parasitic disease known as sleeping sickness. Mitochondrial transcript maturation in these organisms requires a RNA editing reaction that is characterized by the insertion and deletion of U-nucleotides into otherwise non-functional mRNAs. Editing represents an ideal target for a parasite-specific therapeutic intervention since the reaction cycle is absent in the infected host. In addition, editing relies on a macromolecular protein complex, the editosome, that only exists in the parasite. Therefore, all attempts to search for editing interfering compounds have been focused on molecules that bind to proteins of the editing machinery. However, in analogy to other RNA-driven biochemical pathways it should be possible to stall the reaction by targeting its substrate RNAs. Here we demonstrate inhibition of editing by specific aminoglycosides. The molecules bind into the major groove of the gRNA/pre-mRNA editing substrates thereby causing a stabilization of the RNA molecules through charge compensation and an increase in stacking. The data shed light on mechanistic details of the editing process and identify critical parameters for the development of new trypanocidal compounds.
Electron paramagnetic resonance with shaped microwave pulses
Philipp Emanuel Spindler
- Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is the most powerful tool to investigate structural properties and dynamics of paramagnetic substances. Up to date the electron spin is almost exclusively manipulated by rectangular shaped microwave pulses generated with switches. These pulses are unselective which means they excite outside their nominal bandwidth which is in most cases shallow compared to the overall spectral width of the spin system. Shaped pulses which are widely applied in NMR promise higher bandwidth and selectivity. The use of amplitude and phase modulated pulses was not possible for EPR due to the three orders of magnitude faster timescale compared to NMR. In this work, for the first time, an AWG (arbitrary waveform generator) operating with a 1 ns time resolution and 14 bit amplitude resolution was implemented into a commercial Bruker pulsed EPR spectrometer.
First results were obtained with broadband excitation pulses derived by optimum control theory (OCT). The OCT-pulse used excites transverse magnetization with 98% efficiency over a more than four times larger bandwidth than common rectangular pulse generating the same 1 B field. The benefit of such a pulse was demonstrated for magnitude FT-EPR spectroscopy on organic radicals in liquid phase.
Due to Spectrometer deadtime an FID cannot be observed for most inhomogeneous spin systems. For that reason prefocused pulses have been evaluated for their applicability to EPR spectroscopy. OCT-derived prefocused pulses can be understood as a compact Hahn Echo sequence in one monolithic pulse. Here, two problems have been encountered. 1) The limited bandwidth of the active and passive microwave components in the excitation path as well as microwave resonator cause linear distortions of the pulse shape which results in inferior pulse performance. This could be circumvented by measuring the impulse response function of the whole spin excitation path and including this information in the pulse optimization procedure. 2) Anisotropic hyperfine interaction which was not taken into account during the pulse optimization also caused efficiency losses.
PELDOR spectroscopy is a valuable tool to measure distance distributions between two or more paramagnetic centers in the range from 2-8 nm. It is demonstrated that the S/N ratio of PELDOR experiments can be substantially increased by substituting the rectangular shaped pump pulse by an adiabatic inversion pulse. The damping of the dipolar oscillations introduced by the prolonged pump pulse towards shorter distances could be circumvented by introducing a second time reversed pump pulse.
By substituting the refocused echo of the well-known 4-pulse PELDOR with a CPMG sequence the dipolar evolution time and thus the validity of PELDOR experiments would be increased. To achieve the maximum dipolar evolution time in a CPMG PELDOR for each refocusing pulse one pump pulse has to be applied. This could only be achieved with the new adiabatic inversion pulses since multiple inversions with efficiency close to one are not possible with rectangular pulses. Even with adiabatic pump pulses a reduced efficiency was observed due to hardware limitations thus limiting the sequence to three refocusing pulses. An iterative method was developed to remove the residual dipolar signals attributed to the reduced inversion efficiency.
The new 7-pulse CPMG PELDOR sequence enabled measuring reliable distance distributions between the protomers of the trimeric betaine transporter BetP. With these it could be shown that the asymmetries found for the 2 and 3-dimensional crystal structures are even larger in frozen detergent.
Breitbandige, zeitaufgelöste Spektroskopie als empfindliche Methode zur Beobachtung von biomolekularer Dynamik
Peter P. Trojanowski
- In dieser Arbeit wurden zwei Themenblöcke bearbeitet. Zum einen der Aufbau und die Charakterisierung des Kerr-Schalters, einer Anlage zur Messung von Fluoreszenz mit einer Zeitauflösung im Femtosekundenbereich. Zum anderen die Charakterisierung von pyrenmodifizierten Nukleobasen, sowie deren Anwendung in einem neomycinbindenden Aptamer.
Eukaryotic LYR proteins interact with mitochondrial protein complexes
- In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine) motif proteins (LYRMs) of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6) or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1) of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM) independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.
Startrampe für Nanokosmologen : Heinz Rüterjans etablierte in Frankfurt die biomolekulare Magnetresonanz
- Frankfurt ist eine weltweit sichtbare Hochburg der biophysikalischen Chemie. Jenseits der Fachwelt ruft diese Aussage aber eher Achselzucken hervor. Dabei könnte sich die Disziplin mit Fug und Recht »Nanokosmologie« nennen und damit einiges Aufsehen erregen.
A proteomic study of mitotic phase-specific interactors of EB1 reveals a role for SXIP-mediated protein interactions in anaphase onset.
Judith E. Simon
Viji M. Draviam
- Microtubules execute diverse mitotic events that are spatially and temporally separated; the underlying regulation is poorly understood. By combining drug treatments, large-scale immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we report the first comprehensive map of mitotic phase-specific protein interactions of the microtubule-end binding protein, EB1. EB1 interacts with some, but not all, of its partners throughout mitosis. We show that the interaction of EB1 with Astrin-SKAP complex, a key regulator of chromosome segregation, is enhanced during prometaphase, compared to anaphase. We find that EB1 and EB3, another EB family member, can interact directly with SKAP, in an SXIP-motif dependent manner. Using an SXIP defective mutant that cannot interact with EB, we uncover two distinct pools of SKAP at spindle microtubules and kinetochores. We demonstrate the importance of SKAP's SXIP-motif in controlling microtubule growth rates and anaphase onset, without grossly disrupting spindle function. Thus, we provide the first comprehensive map of temporal changes in EB1 interactors during mitosis and highlight the importance of EB protein interactions in ensuring normal mitosis.
Untersuchungen zur Herstellung höherer Silane für die Si-CVD
Selective Lentiviral Gene Delivery to CD133-Expressing Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells
N. Sumru Bayin
Aram S. Modrek
Christian J. Buchholz
Moses V. Chao
Dimitris G. Placantonakis
- Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly primary brain malignancy. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into tumor lineages, are believed to cause tumor recurrence due to their resistance to current therapies. A subset of GSCs is marked by cell surface expression of CD133, a glycosylated pentaspan transmembrane protein. The study of CD133-expressing GSCs has been limited by the relative paucity of genetic tools that specifically target them. Here, we present CD133-LV, a lentiviral vector presenting a single chain antibody against CD133 on its envelope, as a vehicle for the selective transduction of CD133-expressing GSCs. We show that CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133+ human GSCs in dose-dependent manner and that transduced cells maintain their stem-like properties. The transduction efficiency of CD133-LV is reduced by an antibody that recognizes the same epitope on CD133 as the viral envelope and by shRNA-mediated knockdown of CD133. Conversely, the rate of transduction by CD133-LV is augmented by overexpression of CD133 in primary human GBM cultures. CD133-LV selectively transduces CD133-expressing cells in intracranial human GBM xenografts in NOD.SCID mice, but spares normal mouse brain tissue, neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells and primary human astrocytes. Our findings indicate that CD133-LV represents a novel tool for the selective genetic manipulation of CD133-expressing GSCs, and can be used to answer important questions about how these cells contribute to tumor biology and therapy resistance.
A negative feedback modulator of antigen processing evolved from a frameshift in the cowpox virus genome
Agnes I. Wycisk
Peter U. Mayerhofer
- Abstract: Coevolution of viruses and their hosts represents a dynamic molecular battle between the immune system and viral factors that mediate immune evasion. After the abandonment of smallpox vaccination, cowpox virus infections are an emerging zoonotic health threat, especially for immunocompromised patients. Here we delineate the mechanistic basis of how cowpox viral CPXV012 interferes with MHC class I antigen processing. This type II membrane protein inhibits the coreTAP complex at the step after peptide binding and peptide-induced conformational change, in blocking ATP binding and hydrolysis. Distinct from other immune evasion mechanisms, TAP inhibition is mediated by a short ER-lumenal fragment of CPXV012, which results from a frameshift in the cowpox virus genome. Tethered to the ER membrane, this fragment mimics a high ER-lumenal peptide concentration, thus provoking a trans-inhibition of antigen translocation as supply for MHC I loading. These findings illuminate the evolution of viral immune modulators and the basis of a fine-balanced regulation of antigen processing.
Author Summary: Virus-infected or malignant transformed cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which recognize antigenic peptide epitopes in complex with major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules at the cell surface. The majority of such peptides are derived from proteasomal degradation in the cytosol and are then translocated into the ER lumen in an energy-consuming reaction via the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), which delivers the peptides onto MHC I molecules as final acceptors. Viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape this immune surveillance. Here we show that the cowpox viral protein CPXV012 inhibits the ER peptide translocation machinery by allosterically blocking ATP binding and hydrolysis by TAP. The short ER resident active domain of the viral protein evolved from a reading frame shift in the cowpox virus genome and exploits the ER-lumenal negative feedback peptide sensor of TAP. This CPXV012-induced conformational arrest of TAP is signaled by a unique communication across the ER membrane to the cytosolic motor domains of the peptide pump. Furthermore, this study provides the rare opportunity to decipher on a molecular level how nature plays hide and seek with a pathogen and its host.
Characterization of the two isoforms of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase from Pseudomonas stutzeri ZoBell
- Heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) are the terminal enzymes of the aerobic respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane or the plasma membrane in many prokaryotes. These multi-subunit membrane protein complexes catalyze the reduction of oxygen to water, coupling this exothermic reaction to the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane in which they are embedded. The energy stored in the electrochemical proton gradient is used e.g. by the FOF1-ATP synthase to generate ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The superfamily of HCOs is phylogenetically classified into three major families: A, B and C. The A-family HCOs, represented by the well-studied aa3-type cytochrome c oxidases (aa3-CcOs), are found in mitochondria and many bacteria. The B-family of HCOs contains a number of bacterial and archaeal oxidases. The C-family comprises only the cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase (cbb3-CcO) and is most distantly related to the mitochondrial respiratory oxidases.