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- Luis Kutner and the development of the advance directive (living will) (2009)
- It is well known that Luis Kutner (1908-1993) played an important role in the development of the living will (advance directive, Patientenverfügung). But it is not clear when he developed his concept. We have screened the Luis Kutner Papers,deposited at the Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University to answer this question. We found out that in the second half of 1967, Kutner dealt intensively with the issue of euthanasia. On December 7, 1967, he delivered a speech at the annual meeting of the Euthanasia Society in New York and presented the concept of the living will to the audience. So Kutner surely was a pioneer in this field, but further research is necessary to clarify, if he (or maybe Elsa W. Simon or Abraham L. Wolbarst) was the "originator" of the living will concept in the sense of passive euthanasia.

- On correctness of buffer implementations in a concurrent lambda calculus with futures (2009)
- Motivated by the question of correctness of a specific implementation of concurrent buffers in the lambda calculus with futures underlying Alice ML, we prove that concurrent buffers and handled futures can correctly encode each other. Correctness means that our encodings preserve and reflect the observations of may- and must-convergence, and as a consequence also yields soundness of the encodings with respect to a contextually defined notion of program equivalence. While these translations encode blocking into queuing and waiting, we also describe an adequate encoding of buffers in a calculus without handles, which is more low-level and uses busy-waiting instead of blocking. Furthermore we demonstrate that our correctness concept applies to the whole compilation process from high-level to low-level concurrent languages, by translating the calculus with buffers, handled futures and data constructors into a small core language without those constructs.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2009)
- We investigate methods and tools for analyzing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behavior of programs is observed in terms of may- and mustconvergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reflection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extensions.

- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2009)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus’ semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as nondeterminism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe’s proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.

- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2009)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in an extended lambda-calculus LS with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules; and to argue that an approximation calculus LA is equivalent to LS w.r.t. the contextual preorder, which enables the proof tool of simulation. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus L comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variable-binding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof of correctness of transformations, and that the simple calculus LS, the calculus L, and the calculus LA all have an equivalent contextual preorder.

- The ambivalence of juridification. On legitimate governance in the international context (2009)
- The paper argues that the current global market is organized by a system of transnational law whose development is best characterized as ambivalent. On the one side, legal juridification can lead to a hegemonic system of international law that lacks legitimacy, paradoxically creates extralegal spheres, promotes the ‘privatization’ of political areas, and, thereby, reduces the competences of states. On the other side, legal codification can also function as an engine of transnational democratization and as a barrier to an unhampered growth of transnational administrative and executive power. Scholarship on the idea of legitimacy in law and transnational governance in political and legal theory has to reflect these aspects of juridification on a world scale. Most approaches to the issue, however, have serious flaws: they neither offer an adequate empirical diagnosis of the de-embedding of international economic and legal processes, nor do they provide convincing proposals as to how such processes could be domesticated. Against this background, the paper lays out a critical analysis of legal codification processes as well as proposing an account of democratic governance, based on a realistic conception of deliberative democracy.