Habilitationsordnung der Mathematisch–Naturwissenschaftlichen Fachbereiche der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main vom 04.02.1992 (ABl. 1992, S.816 ff.), zuletzt geändert am 28. April 2002 (StAnz. 41/2003, S. 4024 – 4025) : genehmigt durch Beschluss des Präsidiums der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 27. Januar 2009 ; hier: Änderung bzw. Ergänzung
Promotionsordnung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fachbereiche der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main vom 26. Mai 1993 (ABL.1/94, S. 21) zuletzt geändert am 05.09.2007 (Uni-Report 13.11.2008) : genehmigt durch Beschluss des Präsidiums der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 27. Januar 2009 ; hier: Änderung
Dynamical effects and disorder in ultracold bosonic matter
- In this thesis, various aspects on the theoretical description of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices are investigated. After giving a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts of BECs, atomic physics, interatomic interactions and experimental procedures in chapter (1), we derive the Bose-Hubbard model from first principles in chapter (2). In this chapter, we also introduce and discuss a technique to efficiently determine Wannier states, which, in contrast to current techniques, can also be extended to inhomogeneous systems. This technique is later extended to higher dimensional, non-separable lattices in chapter (5). The many-body physics and phases of the Bose-Hubbard is shortly presented in chapter (3) in conjunction with Gutzwiller mean-field theory, and the recently devised projection operator approach. We then return to the derivation of an improved microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, which contains higher band contributions in the presence of interactions in chapter (4). We then move on to many-particle theory. To demonstrate the conceptual relations required in the following chapter, we derive Bogoliubov theory in chapter (5.3.4) in three different ways and discuss the connections. Furthermore, this derivation goes beyond the usual version discussed in most textbooks and papers, as it accounts for the fact, that the quasi-particle Hamiltonian is not diagonalizable in the condensate and the eigenvectors have to be completed by additional vectors to form a basis. This leads to a qualitatively different quasi-particle Hamiltonian and more intricate transformation relations as a result. In the following two chapters (7, 8), we derive an extended quasi-particle theory, which goes beyond Bogoliubov theory and is not restricted to weak interactions or a large condensate fraction. This quasi-particle theory naturally contains additional modes, such as the amplitude mode in the strongly interacting condensate. Bragg spectroscopy, a momentum-resolved spectroscopic technique, is introduced and used for the first experimental detection of the amplitude mode at finite quasi-momentum in chapter (9). The closely related lattice modulation spectroscopy is discussed in chapter (10). The results of a time-dependent simulation agree with experimental data, suggesting that also the amplitude mode, and not the sound mode, was probed in these experiments. In chapter (11) the dynamics of strongly interacting bosons far from equilibrium in inhomogeneous potentials is explored. We introduce a procedure that, in conjunction with the collapse and revival of the condensate, can be used to create exotic condensates, while particularly focusing on the case of a quadratic trapping potential. Finally, in chapter (12), we turn towards the physics of disordered systems derive and discuss in detail the stochastic mean-field theory for the disordered Bose-Hubbard model.
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Physik an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für den
Bachelor-und Masterstudiengang Physik vom 20.07.2011 : genehmigt durch das Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität am 27.09.2011
Fachspezifischer Anhang zur SPoL (Teil III): Studienfach Physik im Studiengang L3 : vorläufig genehmigt durch das Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität am 27. September 2011
Density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory: applications to correlated electron materials
- The study of systems whose properties are governed by electronic correlations is a corner stone of modern solid-state physics. Often, such systems feature unique and distinct properties like Mott metal-insulator transitions, rich phase diagrams, and high sensitivity to subtle changes in the applied conditions. Whereas the standard approach to electronic structure calculations, density functional theory (DFT), is able to address the complexity of real-world materials but is known to have serious limitations in the description of correlations, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) has become an established method for the treatment of correlated fermions, first on the level of minimal models and later in combination with DFT, termed LDA+DMFT.
This thesis presents theoretical calculations on different materials exhibiting correlated physics, where we aim at covering a range in terms of systems --from rather weakly correlated to strongy correlated-- as well as in terms of methods, from DFT calculations to combined LDA+DMFT calculations. We begin with a study on a selection of iron pnictides, a recently discovered family of high-temperature superconductors with varying degree of correlation strength, and show that their magnetic and optical properties can be assessed to some degree within DFT, despite the correlated nature of these systems. Next, extending our analysis to the inclusion of correlations in the framework of LDA+DMFT, we discuss the electronic structure of the iron pnictide LiFeAs which we find to be well described by Fermi liquid theory with regard to many of its properties, yet we see distinct changes in its Fermi surface upon inclusion of correlations. We continue the study of low-energy properties and specifically Fermi surfaces on two more iron pnictides, LaFePO and LiFeP, and predict a topology change of their Fermi surfaces due to the effect of correlations, with possible implications for their superconducting properties. In our last study, we close the circle by presenting LDA+DMFT calculations on an organic molecular crystal on the verge of a Mott metal-insulator transition; there, we find the spectral and optical properties to display signatures of strong electronic correlations beyond Fermi liquid theory.
Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes by activation experiments
- With the increasing energies and intensities of heavy-ion accelerator facilities, the problem of an excessive activation of the accelerator components caused by beam losses becomes more and more important. Numerical experiments using Monte Carlo transport codes are performed in order to assess the levels of activation. The heavy-ion versions of the codes were released approximately a decade ago, therefore the verification is needed to be sure that they give reasonable results. Present work is focused on obtaining the experimental data on activation of the targets by heavy-ion beams. Several experiments were performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The interaction of nitrogen, argon and uranium beams with aluminum targets, as well as interaction of nitrogen and argon beams with copper targets was studied. After the irradiation of the targets by different ion beams from the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI, the γ-spectroscopy analysis was done: the γ-spectra of the residual activity were measured, the radioactive nuclides were identified, their amount and depth distribution were detected. The obtained experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA, MARS and SHIELD. The discrepancies and agreements between experiment and simulations are pointed out. The origin of discrepancies is discussed. Obtained results allow for a better verification of the Monte Carlo transport codes, and also provide information for their further development. The necessity of the activation studies for accelerator applications is discussed. The limits of applicability of the heavy-ion beam-loss criteria were studied using the FLUKA code. FLUKA-simulations were done to determine the most preferable from the radiation protection point of view materials for use in accelerator components.
Meteorologische Untersuchungen in Osnabrück 1875 - 1983 : mit 9 Tabellen
- Im Jahre 1871 wurde durch den Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein Osnabrück
(gegründet 1870) eine meteorologische Station eingerichtet. Sie hatte ihren
Standort am Sommerhaus des damaligen Obergerichtsrats JOHANN-VOLLRATH
KETTLER,Osnabrück, Ziegelstraße 7. KETTLER hat 1872 im 1. Jahresbericht des
. Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins über die "Entstehung, Einrichtung und die ersten
Ergebnisse" berichtet. Dieser Bericht ist hier wiedergegeben, legt er uns
dar, daß alle Messungen exakt und gewissenhaft durchgeführt wurden.
Hagedorn states and thermalization : XLIX International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics, 24 - 28 January 2011, Bormio, Italy
- In recent years, Hagedorn states have been used to explain the equilibrium and transport properties of a hadron gas close to the QCD critical temperature. These massive resonances are shown to lower h/s to near the AdS/CFT limit close to the phase transition. A comparison of the Hagedorn model to recent lattice results is made and it is found that the hadrons can reach chemical equilibrium almost immediately, well before the chemical freeze-out temperatures found in thermal fits for a hadron gas without Hagedorn states.
Direct photon emission in heavy ion collisions from microscopic transport theory and fluid dynamics : XLVIII International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics, BORMIO2010, January 25 - 29, 2010, Bormio, Italy
- Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro
hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach,
the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic
calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with
the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to
the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to
measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are