Alterthümer der Prager Josefstadt : israelitischer Friedhof, Alt-Neu-Schule und andere Synagogen
Geographen im Beruf : Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Frankfurter Diplom-Geographinnen und -Geographen zu den Anforderungen des Arbeitsmarktes
Optimization and antiviral analysis of peptide ligands for the HIV-1 packaging signal PSI
- Oral presentations Background: We selected peptide ligands for the HIV-1 packaging signal PSI by screening phage displayed peptide libraries. Peptide ligands were optimized by screening spot synthesis peptide membranes. The aim of this study is the functional characterization of these peptide ligands with respect to inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Methods: Phage displayed peptide libraries were screened with PSI-RNA structures. The Trp-rich peptide motifs were optimized for specific binding on spot synthesis peptide membranes. The best binding peptide was expressed intracellularly in fusion with RFP or linked to a protein transduction domain (PTD) for intracellular delivery. The effects on virion production were analyzed using pseudotyped lentiviral particles. Results: After positive and negative selection rounds, phages binding specifically to PSI-RNA were identified by ELISA. Peptide inserts contained conserved motifs of aromatic amino acids known to be implicated in binding of PSI-RNA by the natural Gag ligand. The filter assay identified HKWPWW as the best binding ligand for PSI-RNA, which is delivered into several cell lines by addition of a PTD. Compared to a control peptide, the HKWPWW peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication as deduced from reduced titers of culture supernatants. As HKWPWW also binds to the TAR-RNA like the natural nucleocapsid PSI-RNA ligand, the effect on Tat-TAR inhibition will also be analyzed. Currently T-cell lines are established which stably express HKWPWW as well as a control peptide, which will be infected with HIV-1 to monitor the ability of HKWPWW to inhibit wild type HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: The selection of a peptide ligand for PSI-RNA able to inhibit HIV-1 replication proves the suitability of the phage display technology for the selection of peptides binding to RNA-structures. This enables the indentification of peptides serving as leads to interfere with additional targets in the HIV-1 replication cycle.
A randomized multi-center phase II trial of the angiogenesis inhibitor Cilengitide (EMD 121974) and gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone in advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer
Jan M. Langrehr
Dieter K. Hossfeld
Simon Van Belle
Albert Abad Esteve
Adrien A. Tempia-Caliera
- Background Anti-angiogenic treatment is believed to have at least cystostatic effects in highly vascularized tumours like pancreatic cancer. In this study, the treatment effects of the angiogenesis inhibitor Cilengitide and gemcitabine were compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods A multi-national, open-label, controlled, randomized, parallel-group, phase II pilot study was conducted in 20 centers in 7 countries. Cilengitide was administered at 600 mg/m2 twice weekly for 4 weeks per cycle and gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m2 for 3 weeks followed by a week of rest per cycle. The planned treatment period was 6 four-week cycles. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, quality of life (QoL), effects on biological markers of disease (CA 19.9) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor), and safety. An ancillary study investigated the pharmacokinetics of both drugs in a subset of patients. Results Eighty-nine patients were randomized. The median overall survival was 6.7 months for Cilengitide and gemcitabine and 7.7 months for gemcitabine alone. The median PFS times were 3.6 months and 3.8 months, respectively. The overall response rates were 17% and 14%, and the tumor growth control rates were 54% and 56%, respectively. Changes in the levels of CA 19.9 went in line with the clinical course of the disease, but no apparent relationships were seen with the biological markers of angiogenesis. QoL and safety evaluations were comparable between treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic studies showed no influence of gemcitabine on the pharmacokinetic parameters of Cilengitide and vice versa. Conclusion There were no clinically important differences observed regarding efficacy, safety and QoL between the groups. The observations lay in the range of other clinical studies in this setting. The combination regimen was well tolerated with no adverse effects on the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of either agent.
Neue Liste der Crocodile, Schildkröten und Eidechsen Deutsch Ost-Afrikas
- Die vorliegende Arbeit enthält ein Verzeichniss jener Crocodil-Schildkröten- und Eidechsen-Arten, welche bis zur Gegenwart als Bewohner Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas erkannt worden sind. Unter ihnen wurden dabei diejenigen, welche erst nach dem Erscheinen meines Buches: "Die Kriechthiere Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas", Berlin 1897, daselbst entdeckt wurden, durch Bezeichnung mit einem Stern (*) besonders hervorgehoben. Ferner enthält die Liste auch die Fundorte aller Exemplare dieser Arten, die seit dem Erscheinen jenes Buches bis zum August 1900 ins Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin eingeliefert wurden, und daneben noch die Fundorte von Objecten, die dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein des Reg.-Bez. Frankfurt a. 0. angehören, von mir aber bestimmt worden sind. Um diese Thiere kenntlich zu machen, führe ich sie unter dem Zeichen F0 an. Nach Zusammenstellung dieser Liste ergab sich daraus, dass nunmehr aus Deutsch-Ost-Afrika 1 Crocodil, 7 Schildkrötenarten mit 1 Varietät und 65 Eidechsenarten mit etwa 14 Varietäten sicher nachgewiesen worden sind. ...
Zur Biologie der Diplopoden
Otto vom Rath
Zum Bädergedichte des Paulos Silentiarios
Allgemeine Grundsätze die Augenheilkunde betreffend : nebst einer Geschichte der rheumatischen Augenentzündung
Mechanisms of apoptotic cell death of lymphocytes in aging and in Alzheimer's disease
- Aging and age-related diseases are becoming more and more important for our society and our health care system. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disorder that destroys some parts of the brain and is characterized by global cognitive decline including a progressive irreversible loss of memory, orientation, and reasoning. “Healthy aging”, therefore, is one of the major aims for modern medicine. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays an important role for example in fetal development, as well as for learning processes. T-lymphocytes usually undergo apoptosis in order to terminate an acute inflammation. The aim of this thesis was to explore the changes in the apoptotic mechanism of peripheral lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients in contrast to physiological aging. The experiments were conducted with lymphocytes of healthy volunteers of different ages, AD patients and young and aged mice. Moreover, transgenic mice carrying familiar AD-related mutations were examined. The aging study of peripheral cells of ‘healthy’-aged volunteers revealed an age-related increase of basal apoptosis. In addition, spontaneous apoptosis as well as apoptosis induced by oxidative stress (ROS) or by Fas engagement were enhanced in aging. A closer look at the subcellular basis of the lymphocytes (e.g. B-, NK-, CD4+-, and CD8+-T cells) determined that all lymphocyte subsets were affected by aging. Therefore, it could be concluded that the regulation of apoptosis is generally impaired in lymphocytes of aged persons. The increased susceptibility to oxidative stress supports the ‘Free radical theory of aging’ that claims the radicals to be the cause for the aging-process. In mice an increase of basal, spontaneous and ROS-induced apoptosis was detected in T cells from the spleen, as well. An oral treatment over two weeks with the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 showed a clear reduction of ROS-induced apoptosis in the treated group. Interestingly, basal and spontaneous apoptosis, e.g. physiological apoptosis, were not effected by the plant extract. This is an important benefit for therapy since physiological apoptosis has a great relevance in the elimination of cancer-cells for example. In conclusion, the antidementive drug EGb761 reduces specifically ROS-induced apoptosis that a plays an important role in aging as shown in this thesis. Based on the data found in healthy aging, lymphocytes from AD patients were assessed for apoptosis. The cells show enhanced levels of basal, spontaneous, and Fas-induced apoptosis. In subsequent experiments it was demonstrated that mainly the T cells were responsible for the findings. However, the NK-cells provided an important impact as well. In concordance with AD-affected neurons, peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients show clear signs of apoptotic cell death. In addition, basal apoptosis of T cells and the CD4/CD8-ratio showed a correlation with the severity of the dementia. Therefore, it could be speculated that apoptosis is due to activation-induced cell death (AICD) that occurs in acute and chronic activation of adaptive immunity. In AD there is a chronic neuroinflammation in the CNS triggering degeneration of neural tissue. In order to explore this, the experimental model of lymphocyte’s activation was established in healthy aging first. The study included the detection of various events of lymphocyte’s activation on the basis of the T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+). The inducibility to mitogenic stimulation clearly decreased in both subsets in aging. In contrast, T lymphocytes from AD patients showed an enhanced activation subsequent to mitogenic stimulation compared with age-matched nondemented persons. Only proliferation of CD8+ T cells was clearly reduced in AD. This data could be clues that an increased generation of memory T cells due to chronic neuroinflammation might be evident in AD. Memory T lymphocytes show increased inducibility upon mitogenic activation. Interestingly, CD8+ memory T cells display decreased prolifertive capacity. Due to activation, cells die by apoptosis later on. It could be concluded that AD patients display an increased amount of memory T cells compared to controls. The data implicate that there could be a cross talk between inflammatory within the brain and inflammatory cells of the periphery. This is an interesting point since the brain used to be assumed as immune-privileged zone. According to the experiment, the information of the diseased brain is transferred to white blood cells. The connection of those two compartments might raise the opportunity to observe and probably to influence easily not-accessible regions like the brain. Transgenic mice carrying mutations in familiar AD-relevant genes (Amyloid-Precursor-Protein, Presenilin-1, respectively) displayed enhanced levels of apoptotic T cells from the spleen, as well. It seems that those mutated proteins influence the regulation of apoptosis. Probably, they are involved in the increased cell death of T- and NK-cells, as well. Animals overexpressing Presenilin-1 showed reduced levels of apoptotic cell death. It was demonstrated with molecuar biology tools that Presenilin-1, processed during apoptosis, has an anti-apoptotic effect.
Wie lange noch eine Lehrerbildung für das "niedere" und das "höhere Schulwesen"?