- Characterization of proteorhodopsin 2D crystals by electron microscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (2008)
- Proteorhodopsin (PR) originally isolated from uncultivated γ-Proteobacterium as a result of biodiversity screens, is highly abundant ocean wide. PR, a Type I retinal binding protein with 26% sequence identity, is a bacterial homologue of Bacteriorhodopsin (BR). The members within this family share about 78% of sequence identity and display a 40 nm difference in the absorption spectra. This property of the PR family members provides an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of spectral tuning. Functionally PR is a photoactive proton pump and is suggested to exhibit a pH dependent vectorality of proton transfer. This raises questions about its potential role as pH dependent regulator. The abundance of PR in huge numbers within the cell, its widespread distribution ocean wide at different depths hints towards the involvement of PR in utilization of solar energy, energy metabolism and carbon recycling in the Sea. Contrary to BR, which is known to be a natural 2D crystal, no such information is available for PR til date. Neither its functional mechanism nor its 3D structure has been resolved so far. This PhD project is an attempt to gain a deeper insight so as to understand structural and functional characterization of PR. The approach combines the potentials of 2D crystallography, Atomic Force Microscopy and Solid State NMR techniques for characterization of this protein. Wide range of crystalline conditions was obtained as a result of 2D crystallization screens. This hints towards dominant protein protein interactions. Considering the high number of PR molecules reported per cell, it is likely that driven by such interactions, the protein has a native dense packing in the environment. The projection map represented low resolution of these crystals but suggested a donut shape oligomeric arrangement of protein in a hexagonal lattice with unit cell size of 87Å*87Å. Preliminary FTIR measurements indicated that the crystalline environment does not obstruct the photocycle of PR and K as well as M intermediate states could be identified. Single molecule force spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy on these 2D crystals was used to probe further information about the oligomeric state and nature of unfolding. The data revealed that protein predominantly exists as hexamers in crystalline as well as densely reconstituted regions but a small percentage of pentamers is also observed. The unfolding mechanism was similar to the other relatively well-characterized members of rhodopsin family. A good correlation of the atomic force microscopy and the electron microscopy data was achieved. Solid State NMR of the isotopically labeled 2D crystalline preparations using uniformly and selectively labeling schemes, allowed to obtain high quality SSNMR spectra with typical 15N line width in the range of 0.6-1.2 ppm. The measured 15N chemical shift value of the Schiff base in the 2D crystalline form was observed to be similar to the Schiff base chemical shift values for the functionally active reconstituted samples. This provides an indirect evidence for the active functionality of the protein and hence the folding. The first 15N assignment has been achieved for the Tryptophan with the help of Rotational Echo Double Resonance experiments. The 2D Cross Polarization Lee Goldberg measurements reflect the dynamic state of the protein inspite of restricted mobility in the crystalline state. The behavior of lipids as measured by 31P from the lipid head group showed that the lipids are not tightly bound to the protein but behave more like the lipid bilayer. The 13C-13C homonulear correlation experiments with optimized mixing time based on build up curve analysis, suggest that it is possible to observe individual resonances as seen in case of glutamic acid. The signal to noise was good enough to record a decent spectrum in a feasible period. The selective unlabeling is an efficient method for reduction in the spectral overlap. However, more efficient labeling schemes are required for further characterization. The present spectral resolution is good for individual amino acid investigation but for uniformly labeled samples, further improvement is required.
- Solid-state NMR investigations of the ATP binding cassette multidrug transporter LmrA (2006)
- The development of resistance to multiple drugs is a major problem in treatment of number of infectious diseases and cancer. The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) is based on the synergetic interplay of a number of mechanisms such as target inactivation, target alteration, prevention of drug influx as well as active extrusion of drugs from the cell. The latter is mediated by over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps. The first discovered and the best characterized until now the human MDR transporter is P-glycoprotein. It is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and acts as an active transporter for a variety of anticancer agents using the energy released by ATP hydrolysis. The closest structure and functional homologue of P-glycoprotein found in bacteria is LmrA from Lactococcus lactis. The major goals of this work are to establish the selective isotope labelling of LmrA in Lactococcus lactis, to optimize LmrA sample preparation for solid-state NMR, and finally to perform first solidstate NMR investigations on LmrA shedding light on its catalytic cycle and substrate binding. For a long time the solid-state NMR applications to biological science has been limited to investigation of small molecules mostly. Recently, the solid-state NMR methods have shown potential for structuraland non-perturbing, site directed functional studies of large membrane proteins as well as ligands bound to them. However, to our knowledge neither selective isotope amino acid labelling of any ABC transporter, nor NMR investigations on full-length ABC transporter have been reported to date. Solidstate NMR experiments on a membrane protein require reconstitution of purified proteins into a membrane environment at a high density and either isotopic enrichment of the protein or bound drugs or inhibitors. Therefore, the large quantities of LmrA reconstituted at a high density in lipid membranes, sufficient for advanced NMR studies have been produced and its functional state in reconstituted form has been assessed. In the next step, a procedure for cost effective selective amino acids isotope labelling of LmrA in Lactococcus lactis has been established. Using this protocol deuterium alanine labelled LmrA reconstituted into E. coli liposomes has been prepared. Deuterium NMR has been used extensively to assess the proteins dynamics in past. However, it has never been applied to ABC transporter. Here, we report 2H NMR on selective alanine isotope labelled LmrA which has been used to shed light on the dynamics changes in the protein occurred under AMP-PNP, non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, binding and in ATP/ADP-Vanadate trapped state. It has been found that the major conformation changes affecting the protein motional characteristics occur in the ATP binding domains but not in the transmembrane domains. Additionally, the binding of several substrates to LmrA has been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by 19F and 31P solid-state NMR. The binding constants for several LmrA substrates have been obtained by fitting the concentration dependant tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence quenching curves. Based on the fluorescence studies and solid-state NMR data, the conformation changes in LmrA under substrate binding have been discussed. In addition, the preferable location of nine LmrA and P-glycoprotein substrates within the model membrane has been studied via 1H-MAS-NOESY-NMR. The results have been interpreted with respect to LmrA and P-glycoprotein binding site accessibility from the membrane interface region.
- The human GPCR nicotinic acid receptor 1 : heterologous overproduction in Pichia pastoris and the reconstitution of its complex with beta-Arrestin 1 in vivo and in vitro (2007)
- Nicotinic acid has been used in the clinical treatment of elevated blood lipid levels for over 50 years. Although it has a beneficial effect on myocardial infarction and blood lipid profiles, its widespread use has been hampered by side effects such as skin rashes and a burning sensation on the upper body. Since elevated blood lipid levels, especially ones of VLDL and LDL cholesterol are a frequent indication and high risk factor for coronary and cardiac diseases, finding a compound with an enhanced pharmacological profile, still holding the desired effects, but without inconvenient side effects, is a very appealing aim to many pharmaceutical companies. These efforts have already produced two marketed drugs, Acipimox and Acifran, but they have not been able to overcome the restrictions already imposed on the treatment by nicotinic acid. Although proposed long before, in the year 2000 the gene for the nicotinic acid receptor in mouse PUMA-G was cloned, and in 2003 the discovery of the genes HM74 and HM74A followed, which comprise the homologous low and high affinity receptors for nicotinic acid in humans. The discovery of this G Protein-coupled receptor target allowed a more directed approach for the search of alternative compounds. This work is the first report of the heterologous overexpression of the high affinity GPCR gene HM74A in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The protein product, NAR1, was pharmacologically characterized, and displayed a binding affinity of 224.8 nM to its ligand nicotinic acid, showing a similar activity profile compared to those displayed in human tissue, which were determined to be 60 nM to 90 nM. Additionally, inhibitory constants (Ki) for Acifran and Acipimox were determined to be 4.5 µM and 50.5 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the total yield of NAR1 reached 42 pmol/mg membrane protein, which corresponds to 0.4 mg of receptor produced per liter yeast culture, opening up the perspective of large scale protein production to facilitate high throughput screening drug discovery efforts and structural studies. In addition, NAR1 could be solubilized in n-decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and purified to homogeneity after immobilized metal affinity chromatography and a second affinity chromatography step on immobilized monomeric avidin, yielding a single peak on gel filtration, while the purified receptor was able to bind ligand, as shown in NMR Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) measurements. It could be shown that NAR1 is desensitized by β-arrestin 1 in vivo in confocal microscopy studies on HEK and BHK cells. This finding provides a native binding partner for the stabilization of the receptor upon solubilization and purification. Finally human β-arrestin 1 could be produced as a constitutively active variant, comprising residues 1-382 in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli. The purified protein was used for in vitro binding experiments and shown to be capable of interacting with NAR1. Although the interaction and formation of the complex was only possible to a limited extent, it leaves open the perspective of crystallizing NAR1 in its active conformation, bound to nicotinic acid and β-arrestin 1.
- Methoden zur Konformationsbestimmung an Peptiden und Nukleinsäuren mittels skalarer und dipolarer Kopplungen (2012)
- Die in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Untersuchungen an GXG Modellpeptiden konnten eindeutig zeigen, dass diese Peptide, auch ohne das Vorhandensein von langreichweitigen Wechselwirkungen, bestimmte Sekundärstrukturen präferieren. Ein Teil der beobachteten, auftretenden Strukturmotive lässt sich hierbei über den sterischen Anspruch der Seitenkette erklären, ein anderer Teil über die Ladung der Seitenkette. In Kombination mit anderen Spektroskopischen Methoden konnten zehn dieser Peptide genauestens untersucht werden. Hierbei zeigte sich, dass diese Peptide nicht nur die favorisierten Regionen des Ramachandran-Diagramms besetzen. Ein Vergleich mit dem Vorkommen bestimmter Aminosäuren, beispielsweise in loop Regionen von Proteinen, zeigt dass die Sequenz dieser loops nicht zufällig ist. Tatsächlich besitzt ein Teil der Aminosäuren, die besonders häufig an bestimmten loop Positionen vorkommen, bereits die intrinsische Vorliebe, die notwendige Konformation einzunehmen. Diese Aminosäuren und die umgebenden loops sind somit eventuell nicht nur das simple Verbindungsglied zwischen zwei Sekundärstrukturen, sondern kommen selbst als Ausgangspunkte für Peptid- bzw. Proteinfaltung in Frage. Ein weiteres Augenmerk der Arbeit lag auf der Messung von skalaren und dipolaren Kopplungen an isotopenmarkierter RNA. Es wurden vier Pulssequenzen entwickelt, die es ermöglichen, 1J skalare bzw. dipolare Kopplungen in der Zuckerregion von 13C- markierter RNA mit hoher Präzision zu messen. Die entwickelten J-modulierten Experimente ermöglichen die Messung von 1J(H2’C2’), 1J(C1’C2’) sowie 1J(C2’C3’) Kopplungen selbst für größere RNA Moleküle. Die Detektion erfolgt hierbei auf den C1’H1’ Signalen, die Zuordnung der Kerne, deren Kopplung gemessen wird, ist nicht einmal erforderlich. Die Anwendbarkeit konnte für verschiedene Systeme mit 14 bis 70 Nukleotiden demonstriert werden. Die erreichte Präzision ermöglichte es außerdem auch sehr kleine Effekte, wie beispielsweise die Ausrichtung von RNA im Magnetfeld zu detektieren. Diese Arbeit zeigt außerdem zwei Beispiele für die gezielte Modifikation, um Lanthanid Bindungsstellen einführen zu können. Auf chemischen und biochemischen Weg konnte isotopenmarkierte, in vitro transkribierte RNA modifiziert werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eindeutig eine Bindung von Lanthanid-Ionen an die modifizierte RNA. Die auftretenden, eher kleinen Effekte, sind vermutlich auf die noch zu hohe Flexibilität der eingeführten Modifikationen. Vor allem bei der chemischen Modifikation besteht hier noch Potential zur Optimierung, nachdem die generelle Anwendbarkeit der Methode demonstriert wurde. Der letzte Teil der Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Analyse von Kopplungsmustern zur Analyse und zum Vergleichen von Naturstoffen. Hier konnten aus einer Reihe von Derivaten eindeutig die identifiziert werden, die verglichen mit der Ausgangsstruktur, die gleiche Konformation besitzen. Die gewonnenen Ergebnisse decken sich hier mit durchgeführten biologischen Tests, die ebenfalls dasselbe Derivat als aktiv identifizieren konnten, was klar für eine Struktur-Aktivitäts-Beziehung spricht. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Methoden und Anwendungen gezeigt, um skalare und dipolare Kopplungen im Bereich von Peptiden, Nukleinsäuren und kleinen Molekülen zu nutzen. Die durchgeführten Arbeiten reichen dabei von der speziellen Probenpräparation zur Messung von dipolaren Kopplungen bis hin zur Entwicklung neuer NMR-spektroskopischer Methoden zur Messung von Kopplungen mit höherer Präzision und an größeren Systemen als bisher.
- NMR-spektroskopische Methodenentwicklung an RNA und strukturelle Charakterisierung des transkriptionellen Adenin-RNA-Schalters (2012)
- Die Untersuchung von RNA mittels NMR-Spektroskopie hat in den letzten Jahren an Bedeutung gewonnen, weil die Zahl der neu entdeckten RNA-Funktionen, wie z.B. RNA-Schalter in Bakterien, stark gestiegen ist. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, mithilfe der NMR-Spektroskopie einen Beitrag zum besseren Verständnis der biochemischen Prozesse, in die RNA-Moleküle involviert sein können, zu leisten. Im ersten Teil dieser Arbeit (Kapitel 2, 3 und 4) werden zum einen die Entwicklung neuer Methoden für die RNA-Strukturbestimmung vorgestellt und zum anderen die Leistungsfähigkeit der modernen NMR-spektroskopischen Strukturaufklärung demonstriert. Im zweiten Teil dieser Arbeit (Kapitel 5) wird die NMR-Spektroskopie zur Untersuchung der RNA-Schalter-Funktion eingesetzt. Die biologische Funktion von RNA oder Proteinen setzt oftmals eine dynamische Struktur voraus und involviert Konformationsänderungen infolge biochemischer Signalweiterleitung. Für die Charakterisierung solcher Prozesse eignet sich die NMR-Spektroskopie insbesondere gut, weil sie in Lösung unter verschiedenen Reaktionsbedingungen angewandt wer-den kann. Durch den direkten NMR-spektroskopischen Nachweis von Basenpaarungen können wichtige strukturelle Eigenschaften (Faltung, Strukturhomogenität und Dynamik) entschlüsselt und in einen Zusammenhang mit der Funktion gebracht werden. Im Folgenden werden die einzelnen Kapitel vorgestellt. Nachdem das erste Kapitel eine allgemeine Einleitung in die NMR-Spektroskopie, RNA-Struktur und Funktion der RNA-Schalter darstellt, folgt im Kapitel 2 die Einführung einer neuen Methode, die eine quantitative Bestimmung der Torsionswinkel alpha und zeta in RNA/DNA mittels NMR-Spektroskopie ermöglicht (Abb. 1). Sie basiert auf der Wechselwirkung zwischen dem CH-Dipol und der 31P-CSA, die von der relativen Orientierung abhängig ist. Die Methode wurde für die CH- und CH2-Gruppen in Form von zwei Pulssequenzen (2D- und 3D-G-HCP) zur Messung von insgesamt fünf kreuz-korrelierten Relaxationsraten entlang des RNA/DNA-Rückgrats optimiert. Die Funktionsfähigkeit der Methode wurde zunächst an der 14mer cUUCGg-Tetraloop RNA getestet und zur Bestimmung der Torsionswinkel alpha und zeta genutzt. Die Ergebnisse flossen in die Strukturrechnung der 14mer RNA, die im Kapitel 3 vorgestellt wird, mit ein. Des Weiteren gelang es die Anwendbarkeit der Experimente an einer größeren 27mer RNA zu demonstrieren. Die neue Methode ist deswegen von Bedeutung, weil die Winkel alpha und zeta nicht über 3J-Kopplungskonstanten gemessen werden können. (Nozinovic, S., Richter, C., Rinnenthal, J., Fürtig, B., Duchardt-Ferner, E., Weigand, J. E., Schwalbe, H. (2010), J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 10318-10329.) Im Kapitel 3 wird die NMR-spektroskopische Bestimmung der Struktur einer Model-RNA, der 14mer cUUCGg-Tetraloop RNA, vorgestellt. Die Strukturrechung wurde mit verschiedenen NMR-Datensätzen, die in der Arbeitsgruppe einschließlich dieser Doktorarbeit gesammelt wurden, durchgeführt. Zusammen mit den Ergebnissen aus dem Kapitel 2 konnte eine sehr präzise Struktur mit einem RMSD von 0,37 Å (20 Strukturen) in sehr guter Übereinstimmung mit experimentellen Daten ermittelt werden. Die gerechnete Struktur repräsentiert eine der gegenwärtig genauesten und umfassendsten Strukturbestimmungen einer RNA, bei der jeder Torsionswinkel quantitativ bestimmt wurde. Einen besonderen Höhepunkt stellt die strukturelle Analyse der 2’OH-Gruppen dar, die im anschließenden Kapitel 4 weiter vertieft wurde. (Nozinovic, S., Fürtig, B., Jonker, H. R. A., Richter, C., Schwalbe, H. (2010), Nucleic Acids Res. 38, 683-694) Über Jahre war bekannt, dass die Größe der 1J(C1’,H1’)- und 1J(C2’,H2’)-Kopplungskonstanten innerhalb der Ribonukleotide von der lokalen Struktur des Zuckers und der Orientierung der Nukleobase beeinflusst wird. In dieser Arbeit (Kapitel 4) wurde zum ersten Mal ein systematischer Vergleich zwischen NMR-Messungen und DFT-Rechnungen durchgeführt, der eine eindeutige Zuordnung der Hauptkonformationen des Zuckers (C3’- oder C2’-endo) und der Nukleobase (anti oder syn) anhand der 1J(C,H)-Kopplungskonstanten erlaubt. Die beschriebene Methode wurde an einer größeren 27mer RNA erfolgreich erprobt. Weiterhin wurde erstmalig entdeckt, dass zudem die Orientierung der 2’OH-Gruppe einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die 1J(C,H)-Kopplungen hat (Abb. 3). Mithilfe von NMR-Messungen und DFT-Rechnungen konnte aus 1J(C,H)-Kopplungskonstanten die Orientierung von allen 2’OH-Gruppen in der 14mer cUUCGg-Tetraloop RNA bestimmt werden. Die Methode hat den großen Vorteil, dass 2’OH-Gruppen, die aufgrund des schnellen Austauschs mit Wasser oder D2O keine NMR-Signale liefern, analysiert werden kön-nen. (Nozinovic, S., Gupta, P., Fürtig, B., Richter, C., Tüllmann, S., Duchardt-Ferner, E., Holthausen, M. C., Schwalbe, H. (2011), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 5397-5400) Im Kapitel 5 wird eine NMR-spektroskopische Untersuchung an der Aptamerdomäne des Adenin-bindenden RNA-Schalters (pbuE) vorgestellt. Im Fokus der Forschung stand die Frage: Welchen Einfluss hat die Länge der P1-Helix auf die Struktur und die Ligandbindung der freien Aptamer-domäne? Durch den Vergleich von zwei Konstrukten mit unterschiedlich langer P1-Helix war es möglich, intrinsische Scherkräfte, die durch die Ausbildung der P1-Helix in der freien Aptamerdomäne entstehen, festzustellen. Es hat sich im Konstrukt mit der verlängerten P1-Helix gezeigt, dass diese zur Destabilisierung der P3-Helix und des Schlaufenkontakts führen. Diese strukturellen Änderungen haben außerdem zur Folge, dass die Bindungsstärke des Liganden reduziert wird. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass ein strukturelles Gleichgewicht zwischen Sekundärstrukturelementen die tertiäre Faltung beeinflusst und die Funktion moduliert. (Nozinovic, S., Reining, A., Noeske, J., Wöhnert, J., Schwalbe, H. (2011), in Vorbereitung)
- Structural and functional characterization of the triplet acyl carrier protein in the curacin cluster and its interaction partners (2011)
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO) bacterial resistance to antibiotic drug therapy is emerging as a major public health problem around the world. Infectious diseases seriously threaten the health and economy of all countries. Hence, the preservation of the effectiveness of antibiotics is a world wide priority. The key to preserving the power of antibiotics lies in maintaining their diversity. Many microorganisms are capable of producing these bioactive products, the so called antibiotics. Specifically in microorganisms, polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) produce these natural bioactive compounds. Besides being used as antibiotics these non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides display an even broader spectrum of biological activities, e.g. as antivirals, immunosuppressants or in antitumor therapy. The wide functional spectrum of the peptides and ketides is due to their structural diversity. Mostly they are cyclic or branched cyclic compounds, containing non-proteinogenic amino acids, small heterocyclic rings and other unusual modifications such as epimerization, methylation, N‐formylation or heterocyclization. It is has been shown that these modifications are important for biological activity, but little is known about their biosynthetic origin. PKS and NRPS are multidomain protein assembly lines which function by sequentially elongating a growing polyketide or peptide chain by incorporating acyl units or amino acids, respectively. The growing product is attached via a thioester linkage to the 4’-phosphopantetheine (4’-Ppant) arm of a holo acyl carrier protein (ACP) in PKSs or holo peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) in NRPSs and is passed from one module to another along the chain of reaction centers. The modular arrangement makes PKS and NRPS systems an interesting target for protein engineering. More than 200 novel polyketide compounds have already been created by module swapping, gene deletion or other specific manipulations. Unfortunately, however, engineered PKS often fail to produce significant amounts of the desired products. Structural studies may faciliate yield improvement from engineered systems by providing a more complete understanding of the interface between the different domains. While some information about domain-domain interactions, involving the most common enzymatic modules, ketosynthase and acyltransferase, is starting to emerge, little is known about the interaction of ACP domains with other modifying enzymes such as methyltransferases, epimerases or halogenases. To further improve the understanding of domain-domain interactions this work focuses on the curacin A assembly line. Curacin A, which exhibits anti-mitotic activity, is from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. This outstanding natural product contains a cyclopropane ring, a thiazoline ring, an internal cis double bond and a terminal alkene. The biosynthesis of curacin A is performed by a 2.2 Mega Dalton (MDa) hybrid PKS-NRPS cluster. A 10-enzyme assembly catalyzes the formation of the cyclopropane moiety as the first building block of the final product. Interestingly, for these enzymes the substrate is presented by an unusual cluster of three consecutive ACPs (ACPI,II,III). Little is known about the function of multiple ACPs which are supposed to increase the overall flux for enhanced production of secondary metabolites. The first task in this work was to elucidate the structural effect of the triplet ACP repetition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The initial data show that the excised ACPI, ACPII or ACPIII proteins resulted in [15N, 1H]-TROSY spectra with strong chemical shift perturbations (CSPs), suggesting an effect on the structure. The triplet ACP domains display a high sequence identity (93- 100%) making structural investigation using usual NMR techniques due to high peak overlap impossible. To enable the investigation of the triplet ACP in its native composition we developed a powerful method, the three fragment ligation. Segmental labeling allows incorporating isotopes into one single domain in its multidomain context. As a result we could prepare the triplet ACP with only one domain isotopically labeled and therefore assign the full length protein. In this way our method paved the way to study the structural effects of the triplet ACP repetition. We could show unexpectedly, that, despite the fact that the triplet repeat of CurA ACPI,II,III has a synergistic effect in the biosynthesis of CurA, the domains are structurally independent. In the second part of this work, we studied the structure of the isolated ACPI domain. Our results show that the CurA ACPI undergoes no major conformational changes upon activation via phosphopantetheinylation and therefore contradicts the conformational switching model which has been proposed for PCPs. Further we report the NMR solution structures of holo-ACPI and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-ACPI. Data obtained from filtered nuclear overhauser effect (NOE) experiments indicate that the substrate HMG is not sequestered but presented on the ACP surface. In the third part of this work we focussed on the protein-protein interactions of the isolated ACPI with its cognate interaction partners. We were especially interested in the interaction with the halogenase (Cur Hal), the first enzyme within the curacin A sub-cluster, acting on the initial hydroxyl-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) attached to ACPI. Primarily we studied the interaction using NMR titration and fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Surprisingly no complex between ACPI and Cur Hal could be detected. The combination of an activity assay using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectroscopy and mutational analysis revealed several amino acids of ACPI that strongly decrease the activity of CurA Hal. Mapping these mutations according to their effect on the Cur Hal activity onto the structure of HMG-ACPI displays that these amino acids surround the substrate and form a consecutive surface. These results suggest that this surface is important for Cur Hal recognition and selectivity. Our research presented herein is an excellent example for protein-protein interactions in PKS systems underlying a specific recognition process.
- Insights into a Lipid Regulator by Solid-State MAS NMR: Kinetic and Structure-Functional Studies on Diacylglycerol Kinase (2013)
- In this thesis the integral membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) from E.coli is investigated with solid-state NMR. The aim is to gain an insight into the enzyme’s mechanism through integration of kinetic, structural and dynamic data. The biological function of DAGK is the transfer of the γ-phosphate group from Mg*ATP to diacylglycerol (DAG) building phosphatidic acid (PA) as port of the membrane-derived oligosaccharide cycle[31,34]. Surprisingly, DAGK does not share structural or sequential similarities with other kinases. Typical sequence motives found in other kinases, which catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions, are not found. In its physiological form DAGK is a homo-trimer with nine transmembrane helices, three catalytic centers and a size of 39.6 kDa. First, the set-up of a real-time 31P MAS NMR experiment is shown. This experiment allows measuring in real-time the simultaneous ATP hydrolysis in the aqueous phase and lipid substrate phos-phorylation in the membrane phase with atomic resolution under magic angle spinning. After fast transfer of the sample into the NMR spectrometer the enzymatic reaction is started with a temperature jump. This approach of real-time MAS NMR in a dual-phase system was demonstrated for the lipid substrate analogs dioleoyl- (DOG) and dibutyrylglycerol (DBG), with a C8 and C4 aliphatic chain, respectively. The combination of 31P direct and cross polarization functions as a dynamic filter. In the 31P direct polarized experiment nuclei in both phases are detected, while in the 31P cross polar-ized experiment, only nuclei in the membrane phase are detected. Rates for substrate turnover, i.e. degradation of γP-, βP, αP-ATP and build-up of βP-, αP-ADP, free phosphate as side reaction, and PA are obtained, which reveal a Michaelis-Menten behavior with regard to Mg*ATP and DBG. Here Mg*ATP and DBG follow a random-equilibrium model, where every substrate can bind indepen-dently from the other substrate. Analyses of the peak integrals from educts and products of the enzymatic reaction, revealed the stoichiometry of the reaction: 1.5 ATP molecules are used to phos-phorylate one DBG molecule. The excess of ATP is attributed to the basal ATPase activity. Further-more, experiments with ATPγS, usually regarded as a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, where carried out. Surprisingly, DAGK hydrolyzes ATPγS and also transfers the thio-phosphate group to the lipid acceptor DBG, which points to a certain degree of plasticity in the active center. A phosphorylated enzyme intermediate was not detected. These results suggest the building of a ternary complex of Mg*ATP, DBG and DAGK performing a direct-phosphoryl transfer reaction, without passing through a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. Experiments with the transition state analog ortho-vanadate (Vi) showed a decoupling of the ATP hydrolysis activity from lipid substrate phosphorylation. This indicates a specific transfer site for the γ-phosphate group from ATP to DAG, which can be blocked by Vi. A general disadvantage of NMR spectroscopy compared to other spectroscopic methods is its inherent low sensitivity. One possible starting point for the improvement of signal-to-noise per unit time is the reduction of the spin-lattice relaxation time of protons. Usually 95 % of the experi-mental time is required for the relaxation of the 1H to equilibrium. The addition of paramagnetic species can be used to reduce the 1H T1. In a comprehensive study four different paramagnetic agents were tested: Cu2+-EDTA, Cu2+-EDTA-tag, Gd3+-TTAHA and Gd3+-DOTA. The titration of these paramagnetic complexes showed the principle feasibility of this approach, but differences between the tested species exist. The most promising complex is Gd3+-DOTA which, at a concentration of 2 mM, causes a 10-time improvement of signal-to-noise ratio per unit time. This allowed measuring 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of proteoliposomes in one tenth of the usual required experimental time (i.e. 10 hours vs. 4 days) with good signal-to-noise. For the investigation of structural or dynamic changes in the protein upon substrate interaction with MAS NMR, the spectral properties CP efficiency and resolution of the DAGK in liposomes needed to be improved. The most critical step during sample preparation is the reconstitution of the membrane protein from detergent micelles into a membrane of synthetic lipids under detergent removal. For this procedure the important criteria are enzymatic activity, measured in a coupled ATPase assay, and homogeneity of the proteoliposomes, which was tested e.g. on a discontinuous sucrose step gradient. Therefore an extensive study was carried out, in which different detergents, lipids and lipid mixtures, techniques for detergent removal and different protein-to-lipid ratios were tested. A direct correlation between high ATPase activity and good resolution was not found. Moreover, active DAGK in a mixture of DMPC and cholesterol, which emulates the membrane features of a membrane containing DAG, showed the best CP efficiency and resolution. The assignment of the protein backbone and amino acid side chains the first mandatory step towards the investigation of structural and dynamical features influencing and defining the enzymatic mechanism by MAS NMR. As the assignment procedure is very time consuming for a total protein, a special labeling scheme for DAGK was developed, which allows assigning most of the protein areas presumably involved in enzyme catalysis. The assignment of DAGK with solution NMR was not transferable to the MAS NMR spectra. Most important for the assignment process were the unique pairs, two consecutive amino acids which only appear once in the amino acid sequence. These unique pairs served as anchor points. Five different multinuclear MAS NMR experiments (DARR, NCO, NCA, NCACX, NCOCX) were required for the sequential assignment. It was possible to assign 35 % of the total amino acid sequence with one sample and 8 experiments acquired at 850 MHz. The secondary structure analysis showed subtle differences to the DAGK assignment with solution NMR, which can be attributed to the different environment in lipid bilayers and detergent micelles. Data about structural and dynamical changes under substrate interaction can reveal details about the enzymatic mechanism. Therefore changes in chemical shift in 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments in the apo-state and under substrate saturated conditions with the substrates Mg*AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, DOG, a mixture of Mg*AMP-PNP and DOG as well as inhibited by Vi were recorded. The most significant peak changes were observed at the interface membrane-cytoplasm as well as the the N-terminal amphipathic helix. The residues revealing chemical shift perturbations correlate with conserved residues or such residues, for which importance for catalysis and/or folding could be shown in mutation studies. Especially noticeable were the changes at the amino acids Asn 72, Lys 64, His 87, Tyr 86 and Asp 95. Beside changes of the chemical shift, changes of line width or signal doubling were observable. These changes can point to a correlation with dynamic reorientations in the μs-ms time regime, which are most relevant for enzymatic processes. The protein backbone dynamics in the apo-state as well as saturated with the substrates or inhibited with Vi were investigated with a 15N-CODEX experiment, which is based on the reorientation of the CSA tensor upon dynamical changes. Specific effects of the different substrates or analogs on the protein backbone dynamic were revealed complementing the structural data and the chemical shift perturbation experiments.
- Biophysical Studies of Lipid Membranes by Solid State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations (2013)
- Biological membranes separate the cell interior from the outside and have diverse functions from signal transduction, apoptosis to transportations of ions and small molecules in and out of the cell. Most of these functions are fulfilled by proteins incorporated in the membrane. However, lipids as the main component of membrane not only serve as structural element for bilayer formation but they are also directly involved e.g. signalling processes and bilayer properties are important to mediate protein interactions. To fully understand the role of lipids, it is necessary to develop a molecular understanding of how certain membrane components modify bulk bilayer structure and dynamics. Membranes are known to have many different motions in different conditions and time scales. Temperature, pH, water content and many other conditions change membrane dynamics in a high degree. In addition to this, time scales of motions in membranes vary from ns to ms range corresponding to fast motion and slow motion, respectively. Therefore, membranes are needed to be studied systematically by varying the conditions and using methods to investigate motions in various time scales separately. The aim of this study was therefore perform a combined solid-state NMR / molecular dynamics study on model membranes. Different substrates, such as potential drugs, polarizing agents and signaling lipids were incorporated into bilayers and their location within the membrane and their effect onto the membrane was probed. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), pirinixic acid derivatives, ceramides and polarizing agents were the substrates for membranes in this study. There were several experimental methods that were applied in order to investigate effects of these substrates on membrane dynamics. Different kind of phospholipids including POPC, DMPC and DPPC were used. In addition to experimental work, with the information gathered from solid state NMR experiments molecular dynamics simulations were performed to obtain more information about the membranes at the molecular level. As a result, combination of solid-state NMR with molecular dynamics simulations provides very systematic way of investigating membrane dynamics in a large range of time scales. Pirinixic acid derivatives were special interest of this study because of their activity on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) as an agonist as well as on enzymes of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (PGE2s) -1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as dual inhibitor. Two potent pirinixic acid derivatives, 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoic acid (compound 2) and 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoate (compound 3), have been worked and their insertion depts were investigated by combining of solid state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and theoretical results pointed out that compound 3 was inserted the phospholipid bilayer more deeply than 2. NSAIDs – lipid mixtures have been also studied here. It is known that consumption of NSAIDs as in mixture with lipids results much fewer side effects than consumption of the drugs alone. Thus, it is crucial to understand interactions of NSAIDs with lipids and investigate the possible complex formation of drugs with lipids. In this study, interactions of three widely used NSAIDs, ibuprofen, diclofenac and piroxicam, with DPPC were investigated by solid-state NMR. 1H and 31P NMR results depicted that ibuprofen and diclofenac had interactions with lipids, which is an indication of drug-lipid complex formation whereas piroxicam didn’t show any interactions with lipids suggesting that no complex formation occurred in the case of piroxicam. Ceramides are known to play key roles in many cell processes and many studies showed that the functions of ceramides are related with the ceramide effects on biological membranes. Therefore, in this study, influences of ceramides on biophysics of lipid bilayers were investigated by using various solid state NMR techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. Results from molecular dynamics simulations clearly showed that ceramide and lipids have strong interactions. More evidences about ceramide-lipid interactions were provided from 1H and 14N NMR results. In addition, it was indicated by both simulation and experimental methods that ceramide increased the rigidity of DMPC by increasing chain order parameters. BTbk is a biradical, which is used as polarizing agent for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments and found to be more efficient than other widely used polarizing agents such as TOTAPOL. Since it is a hydrophobic compound, which prefers to stay inside lipid bilayer it is important to investigate the location and orientation of bTbk along the bilayer in order to understand its enhancement profile in DNP measurements. In this study, both NMR relaxation time measurements and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that bTbk tends to stay more close to hydrophobic chain of lipids than the interfacial part of lipids at bilayer surface. In the first part of this work, a brief introduction on lipid membranes as well as a theoretical summary on both methods of solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations is given. Then, in the second part methodology is introduced for both solid-state NMR spectrometer and theoretical calculations. Afterwards, results of different membrane systems are discussed in the following parts for both solid state NMR and MD. Finally, in the last part, a summary and the conclusion of the overall results together with some future plans are explained.