Targeting the oligomerization of BCR/ABL by membrane permeable competitive peptides inhibits the proliferation of Philadelphia Chromosome positive leukemic cells
Afsar Ali Mian
Oliver Gerhard Ottmann
- The BCR/ABL fusion protein is the hallmark of Philadelphia Chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia. The constitutive activation of the ABL-kinase in BCR/ABL cells induces the leukemic phenotype. Targeted inhibition of BCR/ABL by small molecule inhibitors reverses the transformation potential of BCR/ABL. Recently, we definitively proved that targeting the tetramerization of BCR/ABL mediated by the N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CC) using competitive peptides, representing the helix-2 of the CC, represents a valid therapeutic approach for treating Ph+ leukemia. To further develop competitive peptides for targeting BCR/ABL, we created a membrane permeable helix-2 peptide (MPH-2) by fusing the helix-2 peptide with a peptide transduction tag. In this study, we report that the MPH-2: (i) interacted with BCR/ABL in vivo; (ii) efficiently inhibited the autophosphorylation of BCR/ABL; (iii) suppressed the growth and viability of Ph+ leukemic cells; and (iv) was efficiently transduced into mononuclear cells (MNC) in an in vivo mouse model.
This study provides the first evidence that an efficient peptide transduction system facilitates the employment of competitive peptides to target the oligomerization interface of BCR/ABL in vivo.
EFL quarterly : an E-Finance Lab publication ; 1/2013
Novel strategies to improve co-fermentation of pentoses with D-glucose by recombinant yeast strains in lignocellulosic hydrolysates
- Economically feasible production of second-generation biofuels requires efficient co-fermentation of pentose and hexose sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates under very harsh conditions. Baker’s yeast is an excellent, traditionally used ethanol producer but is naturally not able to utilize pentoses. This is due to the lack of pentose-specific transporter proteins and enzymatic reactions. Thus, natural yeast strains must be modified by genetic engineering. Although the construction of various recombinant yeast strains able to ferment pentose sugars has been described during the last two decades, their rates of pentose utilization is still significantly lower than D-glucose fermentation. Moreover, pentoses are only fermented after D-glucose is exhausted, resulting in an uneconomical increase in the fermentation time. In this addendum, we discuss novel approaches to improve utilization of pentoses by development of specific transporters and substrate channeling in enzyme cascades. Addendum to: T Subtil, E Boles. Competition between pentoses and glucose during uptake and catabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Biofuels 2012; 5: 14
PMID: 22424089 DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-14
Direct evidence that the N-terminal extensions of the TAP complex act as autonomous interaction scaffolds for the assembly of the MHC I peptide-loading complex
- The loading of antigenic peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules is an essential step in the adaptive immune response against virally or malignantly transformed cells. The ER-resident peptide-loading complex (PLC) consists of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), assembled with the auxiliary factors tapasin and MHC I. Here, we demonstrated that the N-terminal extension of each TAP subunit represents an autonomous domain, named TMD0, which is correctly targeted to and inserted into the ER membrane. In the absence of coreTAP, each TMD0 recruits tapasin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Although the TMD0s lack known ER retention/retrieval signals, they are localized to the ER membrane even in tapasin-deficient cells. We conclude that the TMD0s of TAP form autonomous interaction hubs linking antigen translocation into the ER with peptide loading onto MHC I, hence ensuring a major function in the integrity of the antigen-processing machinery.
The CYP2D6 animal model: how to induce autoimmune hepatitis in mice
- Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare but life threatening autoimmune disease of the liver of unknown etiology1,2. In the past many attempts have been made to generate an animal model that reflects the characteristics of the human disease 3-5. However, in various models the induction of disease was rather complex and often hepatitis was only transient3-5. Therefore, we have developed a straightforward mouse model that uses the major human autoantigen in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2), namely hCYP2D6, as a trigger6. Type 1 liver-kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1) antibodies recognizing hCYP2D6 are the hallmark of AIH-27,8. Delivery of hCYP2D6 into wildtype FVB or C57BL/6 mice was by an Adenovirus construct (Ad-2D6) that ensures a direct delivery of the triggering antigen to the liver. Thus, the ensuing local inflammation generates a fertile field9 for the subsequent development of autoimmunity. A combination of intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of Ad-2D6 is the most effective route to induce a long-lasting autoimmune damage to the liver (section 1). Here we provide a detailed protocol on how autoimmune liver disease is induced in the CYP2D6 model and how the different aspects of liver damage can be assessed. First, the serum levels of markers indicating hepatocyte destruction, such as aminotransferases, as well as the titers of hCYP2D6 antibodies are determined by sampling blood retroorbitaly (section 2). Second, the hCYP2D6-specific T cell response is characterized by collecting lymphocytes from the spleen and the liver. In order to obtain pure liver lymphocytes, the livers are perfused by PBS via the portal vein (section 3), digested in collagen and purified over a Percoll gradient (section 4). The frequency of hCYP2D6-specific T cells is analyzed by stimulation with hCYP2D6 peptides and identification of IFNγ-producing cells by flow cytometry (section 5). Third, cellular infiltration and fibrosis is determined by immunohistochemistry of liver sections (section 6). Such analysis regimen has to be conducted at several times after initiation of the disease in order to prove the chronic nature of the model. The magnitude of the immune response characterized by the frequency and activity of hCYP2D6-specific T and/or B cells and the degree of the liver damage and fibrosis have to be assessed for a subsequent evaluation of possible treatments to prevent, delay or abrogate the autodestructive process of the liver.
Interactive comment on "An open marine record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event" by D. R. Gröcke et al.
Bas van de Schootbrugge
Identification and isolation of insecticidal oxazoles from Pseudomonas spp.
Helge Björn Bode
- Two new and five known oxazoles were identified from two different Pseudomonas strains in addition to the known pyrones pseudopyronine A and B. Labeling experiments confirmed their structures and gave initial evidence for a novel biosynthesis pathway of these natural oxazoles. In order to confirm their structure, they were synthesized, which also allowed tests of their bioactivity. Additionally, the bioactivities of the synthesis intermediates were also investigated revealing interesting biological activities for several compounds despite their overall simple structures.
Value of procollagen type I aminoterminal propeptide in women with breast cancer with regard to metastases
Gerhard Maximilian Oremek
- Background. The aim of this study was to show the importance of the bone marker procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP) in detecting bone metastases in women suffering from breast cancer. We furthermore investigated to what degree P1NP is correlated to the degree of bone metastases, and if P1NP is increased in patients with metastases other than bone. Patients and Methods. We analyzed 80 serum samples of women (17 premenopausal/63 postmenopausal) with breast cancer. Therefore we used a specific immunoassay “ELECSYS 2010” by Roche Diagnostics. We divided our group of patients with regard to menopausal status, sites of metastases and number of bone metastases. Results. As a result we found higher concentrations of P1NP in women with radiologically confirmed bone metastases (median: 125.75 ng/mL) in comparison to the collective without bone involvement (median: 73.61 ng/mL). However, both groups showed values above the applied cutoff values of median 27.8 ng/mL for premenopausal women and median: 37.1 ng/mL for the postmenopausal group due to the fact that all patients had cancer. Furthermore higher P1NP concentrations were found in women with more than 5 sites of bone metastases (median: 183.9 ng/mL) than in patients with only one site of bone metastases (median: 37 ng/mL). Also patients with no bone involvement but other sites of metastases showed quite high P1NP concentrations (median: 73.61 ng/mL). Conclusion. The marker of bone turnover procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide can be considered as a useful tool for estimating the extent of bone involvement and for the detection of bone metastases. P1NP cannot replace conventional methods for detecting bone metastases such as radiological methods but it can help clarify unclear radiological results. This study does not take into account the change of P1NP concentration during the course of therapy.
Hydrogen-bonded networks along and bifurcation of the E-pathway in quinol:fumarate reductase
Hanno Dominik Juhnke
Alexander H. Haas
C. Roy D. Lancaster
- The E-pathway of transmembrane proton transfer has been demonstrated previously to be essential for catalysis by the diheme-containing quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) of Wolinella succinogenes. Two constituents of this pathway, Glu-C180 and heme b(D) ring C (b(D)-C-) propionate, have been validated experimentally. Here, we identify further constituents of the E-pathway by analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. The redox state of heme groups has a crucial effect on the connectivity patterns of mobile internal water molecules that can transiently support proton transfer from the b(D)-C-propionate to Glu-C180. The short H-bonding paths formed in the reduced states can lead to high proton conduction rates and thus provide a plausible explanation for the required opening of the E-pathway in reduced QFR. We found evidence that the b(D)-C-propionate group is the previously postulated branching point connecting proton transfer to the E-pathway from the quinol-oxidation site via interactions with the heme b(D) ligand His-C44. An essential functional role of His-C44 is supported experimentally by site-directed mutagenesis resulting in its replacement with Glu. Although the H44E variant enzyme retains both heme groups, it is unable to catalyze quinol oxidation. All results obtained are relevant to the QFR enzymes from the human pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori.
The Janthinobacterium sp. HH01 genome encodes a homologue of the V. cholerae CqsA and L. pneumophila LqsA autoinducer synthases
Frederike S. Haack
Helge Björn Bode
Wolfgang R. Streit
- Janthinobacteria commonly form biofilms on eukaryotic hosts and are known to synthesize antibacterial and antifungal compounds. Janthinobacterium sp. HH01 was recently isolated from an aquatic environment and its genome sequence was established. The genome consists of a single chromosome and reveals a size of 7.10 Mb, being the largest janthinobacterial genome so far known. Approximately 80% of the 5,980 coding sequences (CDSs) present in the HH01 genome could be assigned putative functions. The genome encodes a wealth of secretory functions and several large clusters for polyketide biosynthesis. HH01 also encodes a remarkable number of proteins involved in resistance to drugs or heavy metals. Interestingly, the genome of HH01 apparently lacks the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent signaling system and the AI-2-dependent quorum sensing regulatory circuit. Instead it encodes a homologue of the Legionella- and Vibrio-like autoinducer (lqsA/cqsA) synthase gene which we designated jqsA. The jqsA gene is linked to a cognate sensor kinase (jqsS) which is flanked by the response regulator jqsR. Here we show that a jqsA deletion has strong impact on the violacein biosynthesis in Janthinobacterium sp. HH01 and that a jqsA deletion mutant can be functionally complemented with the V. cholerae cqsA and the L. pneumophila lqsA genes.