Computer-assisted transcription and analysis of speech
- The two papers included in this volume have developed from work with the CHILDES tools and the Media Editor in the two research projects, "Second language acquisition of German by Russian learners", sponsored by the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, from 1998 to 1999 (directed by Ursula Stephany, University of Cologne, and Wolfgang Klein, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen) and "The age factor in the acquisition of German as a second language", sponsored by the German Science Foundation (DFG), Bonn, since 2000 (directed by Ursula Stephany, University of Cologne, and Christine Dimroth, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen). The CHILDES Project has been developed and is being continuously improved at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, under the supervision of Brian MacWhinney. Having used the CHILDES tools for more than ten years for transcribing and analyzing Greek child data there it was no question that I would also use them for research into the acquisition of German as a second language and analyze the big amount of spontaneous speech gathered from two Russian girls with the help of the CLAN programs. When in the spring of 1997, Steven Gillis from the University of Antwerp (in collaboration with Gert Durieux) developed a lexicon-based automatic coding system based on the CLAN program MOR and suitable for coding languages with richer morphologies than English, such as Modern Greek. Coding huge amounts of data then became much quicker and more comfortable so that I decided to adopt this system for German as well. The paper "Working with the CHILDES Tools" is based on two earlier manuscripts which have grown out of my research on Greek child language and the many CHILDES workshops taught in Germany, Greece, Portugal, and Brazil over the years. Its contents have now been adapted to the requirements of research into the acquisition of German as a second language and for use on Windows.
A preliminary report on the World species of Bemisia Quaintance and Baker and its congeners (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with a comparative analysis of morphological variation and its role in the recognition of species
- Extreme economic effects globally of various populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)
(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) led to an in depth study of the morphology of that species as well as that of
numerous other species of whiteflies in the genus Bemisia Quaintance and Baker and other similar appearing
species. The data collected are presented here as illustrations of the puparia (fourth instar nymphal stages)
and discussions of morphology as it relates to species and generic separations within this closely knit group
of insects. A brief history of the pest outbreaks of B. tabaci is given and an overview of the important
morphological characteristics of aleyrodine whiteflies is provided. Each of the eighty illustrations is
accompanied by a discussion of the more important aspects of morphology.
JACY - A Grammar for Annotating Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of Written and Spoken Japanese for NLP Application Purposes
- In this text, we describe the development of a broad coverage grammar for Japanese that has
been built for and used in different application contexts. The grammar is based on work done
in the Verbmobil project (Siegel 2000) on machine translation of spoken dialogues in the
domain of travel planning. The second application for JACY was the automatic email
response task. Grammar development was described in Oepen et al. (2002a). Third, it was
applied to the task of understanding material on mobile phones available on the internet, while
embedded in the project DeepThought (Callmeier et al. 2004, Uszkoreit et al. 2004).
Currently, it is being used for treebanking and ontology extraction from dictionary definition
sentences by the Japanese company NTT (Bond et al. 2004).
The systematization of tagalog morphosyntax
- In the last two decades Philippine languages, and of these especially Tagalog, have acquired a prominent place in linguistic theory. A central role in this discussion was played by two papers written by Schachter (1976 and 1977), who was inspired by Keenan's artcle on the subject from 1976. The most recent contributions on this topic have been from de Wolff (1988) and Shibatani (1988), both of which were published in a collection of essays, edited by Shibatani, with the title Passive and Voice. These works, and several works in-between, deal with the focus system specific to Philippine languages. The main discussion centers around the fact that Philippine languages contain a basic set of 5 to 7 affix focus forms. Their exact number varies not only in the secondary literature, but in the primary sources, i.e. Tagalog grammars, as well, where considerable differences in the number of affix focus forms can be found. All of these works, however, do agree on one point: the Philippine focus system basica1ly consists of agent, patient (=goal or object), benefactive, locative, and instrumental affix forms. Schachter/Otanes (1972) list a number of further forms, and in Drossard (1983 and 1984) we tried to show (in an attempt similar to those of Sapir 1917 and Klimov 1977) that the main criterion for a systematization of the Philippine focus system consists in the difference between the active and stative domains, an attempt which in our opinion was largely misunderstood (cf. the brief remarks in Shibatani (1988) and de Wolff (1988). The present paper is thus, on the one hand, an attempt to repeat and clarify our earlier position, and on the other, a further step towards such a systematization. A first step in this direction was an article on resultativity in Tagalog from 1991. In the present paper this approach will be extended to reciprocity. In the process we will show that it is valid to make a distinction between an active (=controlled action) vs. a stative (=limited controlled action) domain. First, however, we will take a brief look at what makes up the active and stative voice systems.