## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

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- 31
- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2007)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in a an extended lambda-calculus with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variablebinding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof that of correctness of transformations, and also that the simple calculus defines an equivalent contextual order.

- 30
- Program transformation for functional circuit descriptions (2007)
- We model sequential synchronous circuits on the logical level by signal-processing programs in an extended lambda calculus Lpor with letrec, constructors, case and parallel or (por) employing contextual equivalence. The model describes gates as (parallel) boolean operators, memory using a delay, which in turn is modeled as a shift of the list of signals, and permits also constructive cycles due to the parallel or. It opens the possibility of a large set of program transformations that correctly transform the expressions and thus the represented circuits and provides basic tools for equivalence testing and optimizing circuits. A further application is the correct manipulation by transformations of software components combined with circuits. The main part of our work are proof methods for correct transformations of expressions in the lambda calculus Lpor, and to propose the appropriate program transformations.

- 29
- Correctness of copy in calculi with letrec, case, constructors and por (2007)
- This paper extends the internal frank report 28 as follows: It is shown that for a call-by-need lambda calculus LRCCP-Lambda extending the calculus LRCC-Lambda by por, i.e in a lambda-calculus with letrec, case, constructors, seq and por, copying can be done without restrictions, and also that call-by-need and call-by-name strategies are equivalent w.r.t. contextual equivalence.

- 28
- Correctness of copy in calculi with letrec, case and constructors (2007)
- Call-by-need lambda calculi with letrec provide a rewritingbased operational semantics for (lazy) call-by-name functional languages. These calculi model the sharing behavior during evaluation more closely than let-based calculi that use a fixpoint combinator. In a previous paper we showed that the copy-transformation is correct for the small calculus LR-Lambda. In this paper we demonstrate that the proof method based on a calculus on infinite trees for showing correctness of instantiation operations can be extended to the calculus LRCC-Lambda with case and constructors, and show that copying at compile-time can be done without restrictions. We also show that the call-by-need and call-by-name strategies are equivalent w.r.t. contextual equivalence. A consequence is correctness of all the transformations like instantiation, inlining, specialization and common subexpression elimination in LRCC-Lambda. We are confident that the method scales up for proving correctness of copy-related transformations in non-deterministic lambda calculi if restricted to "deterministic" subterms.

- 27
- On generic context lemmas for lambda calculi with sharing (2007)
- This paper proves several generic variants of context lemmas and thus contributes to improving the tools to develop observational semantics that is based on a reduction semantics for a language. The context lemmas are provided for may- as well as two variants of mustconvergence and a wide class of extended lambda calculi, which satisfy certain abstract conditions. The calculi must have a form of node sharing, e.g. plain beta reduction is not permitted. There are two variants, weakly sharing calculi, where the beta-reduction is only permitted for arguments that are variables, and strongly sharing calculi, which roughly correspond to call-by-need calculi, where beta-reduction is completely replaced by a sharing variant. The calculi must obey three abstract assumptions, which are in general easily recognizable given the syntax and the reduction rules. The generic context lemmas have as instances several context lemmas already proved in the literature for specific lambda calculi with sharing. The scope of the generic context lemmas comprises not only call-by-need calculi, but also call-by-value calculi with a form of built-in sharing. Investigations in other, new variants of extended lambda-calculi with sharing, where the language or the reduction rules and/or strategy varies, will be simplified by our result, since specific context lemmas are immediately derivable from the generic context lemma, provided our abstract conditions are met.

- 26
- Program Equivalence for a Concurrent Lambda Calculus with Futures (2006)
- Reasoning about the correctness of program transformations requires a notion of program equivalence. We present an observational semantics for the concurrent lambda calculus with futures Lambda(fut), which formalizes the operational semantics of the programming language Alice ML. We show that natural program optimizations, as well as partial evaluation with respect to deterministic rules, are correct for Lambda(fut). This relies on a number of fundamental properties that we establish for our observational semantics.

- 25
- Equivalence of Call-By-Name and Call-By-Need for Lambda-Calculi with Letrec (2006)
- We develop a proof method to show that in a (deterministic) lambda calculus with letrec and equipped with contextual equivalence the call-by-name and the call-by-need evaluation are equivalent, and also that the unrestricted copy-operation is correct. Given a let-binding x = t, the copy-operation replaces an occurrence of the variable x by the expression t, regardless of the form of t. This gives an answer to unresolved problems in several papers, it adds a strong method to the tool set for reasoning about contextual equivalence in higher-order calculi with letrec, and it enables a class of transformations that can be used as optimizations. The method can be used in different kind of lambda calculi with cyclic sharing. Probably it can also be used in non-deterministic lambda calculi if the variable x is "deterministic", i.e., has no interference with non-deterministic executions. The main technical idea is to use a restricted variant of the infinitary lambda-calculus, whose objects are the expressions that are unrolled w.r.t. let, to define the infinite developments as a reduction calculus on the infinite trees and showing a standardization theorem.

- 24
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice : context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb, which is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a normal order reduction. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into an arbitrary program context their termination behaviour is the same. We use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations. We provide a context lemma for may- as well as must- convergence which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations keep contextual equivalence. In contrast to other approaches our syntax as well as semantics does not make use of a heap for sharing expressions. Instead we represent these expressions explicitely via letrec-bindings.

- 23
- Deciding subset relationship of co-inductively defined set constants (2005)
- Static analysis of different non-strict functional programming languages makes use of set constants like Top, Inf, and Bot denoting all expressions, all lists without a last Nil as tail, and all non-terminating programs, respectively. We use a set language that permits union, constructors and recursive definition of set constants with a greatest fixpoint semantics. This paper proves decidability, in particular EXPTIMEcompleteness, of subset relationship of co-inductively defined sets by using algorithms and results from tree automata. This shows decidability of the test for set inclusion, which is required by certain strictness analysis algorithms in lazy functional programming languages.

- 22
- How to prove similarity a precongruence in non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculi (2006)
- Extending the method of Howe, we establish a large class of untyped higher-order calculi, in particular such with call-by-need evaluation, where similarity, also called applicative simulation, can be used as a proof tool for showing contextual preorder. The paper also demonstrates that Mann’s approach using an intermediate “approximation” calculus scales up well from a basic call-by-need non-deterministic lambdacalculus to more expressive lambda calculi. I.e., it is demonstrated, that after transferring the contextual preorder of a non-deterministic call-byneed lambda calculus to its corresponding approximation calculus, it is possible to apply Howe’s method to show that similarity is a precongruence. The transfer is not treated in this paper. The paper also proposes an optimization of the similarity-test by cutting off redundant computations. Our results also applies to deterministic or non-deterministic call-by-value lambda-calculi, and improves upon previous work insofar as it is proved that only closed values are required as arguments for similaritytesting instead of all closed expressions.