Anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving role of mast cells during resolution of local inflammation

  • Mast cells are long-lived tissue-resident leukocytes, located most abundantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces. They belong to the first line of defence of the body, protecting against invading pathogens, toxins and allergens. Their secretory granules are densely packed with a plethora of mediators, which can be released immediately upon activation of the cell. Next to their role in IgE-mediated allergic diseases and in promoting inflammation, potential anti-inflammatory functions have been assigned to mast cells, depending on the biological setting. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the role of mast cells during the resolution of a local inflammation. Therefore, in a first of step a suitable model of a local inflammation had to be identified. Since comparison of the two Toll-like receptor (TLR)-agonists zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which are most commonly used to locally induce inflammation, revealed a systemic response after LPS-injection and a local inflammation after zymosan-injection, the TLR2 agonist zymosan was chosen for the subsequent experiments. Multi epitope ligand cartography (MELC) combined with statistical neighbourhood analysis showed that mast cells are located in an anti-inflammatory microenvironment next to M2 macrophages during resolution of inflammation, while neutrophils and M1 macrophages are located in the zymosan-filled core of the inflammation. Furthermore, infiltrating neutrophils during peak inflammation and an increasing population of macrophages phagocytosing neutrophils during resolution of inflammation could be observed. MELC as well as flow cytometry analysis of mast cell-deficient mice revealed a decreased phagocytosing activity of macrophages in the absence of mast cells. As an untargeted approach to identify mast cell-derived mediators induced by zymosan, mRNA sequencing of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) was performed. Gene ontology term analysis of the sequencing data revealed the induction of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway as the dominant response. Contradicting previous studies, I could validate the production of IFN-β by mast cells in response to zymosan and LPS in vitro. Furthermore IFN-β expression by mast cells was also detected in vivo. In accordance with previous studies regarding other cell types the release of IFN-β by mast cells depends on endosomal signaling. The potential of IFN-β to enhance the phagocytosing activity of macrophages has been demonstrated recently. Besides IFN-β, various other mediators with reported enhancing effects on macrophage phagocytosis were also induced by zymosan in BMMCs, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-13, and Prostaglandin (PG) E2. Thus, either one of these mediators alone or a combination of them could promote macrophage phagocytosis. In conclusion, I herein present mast cells as a novel source for IFN-β induced by non-viral TLR ligands and demonstrate their enhancing effect on macrophage phagocytosis, thereby contributing to the resolution of inflammation.

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Author:Lisa KornstädtGND
Place of publication:Frankfurt
Referee:Achim SchmidtkoORCiDGND, Klaus ScholichORCiD
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2021/07/18
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2021/06/14
Release Date:2021/10/15
Page Number:139
Institutes:Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht