Mild hypothermia alone or in combination with anesthetic post-conditioning reduces expression of inflammatory cytokines in the cerebral cortex of pigs after cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  • Introduction: Hypothermia improves survival and neurological recovery after cardiac arrest. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. It is unknown whether cardiac arrest also triggers the release of cerebral inflammatory molecules, and whether therapeutic hypothermia alters this inflammatory response. This study sought to examine whether hypothermia or the combination of hypothermia with anes-thetic postconditioning with sevoflurane affect cerebral inflammatory response after cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Methods: Thirty pigs (28 - 34kg) were subjected to cardiac arrest following temporary coro-nary artery occlusion. After 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started according to the current AHA guidelines. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 21 animals who were randomized to ei-ther normothermia at 38degreesC, hypothermia at 33degreesC or hypothermia at 33degreesC combined with se-voflurane (each group: n = 7) for 24 hours. The effects of hypothermia and the combination of hypothermia with sevoflurane on cerebral inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary resuscitation were studied using tissue samples from the cerebral cortex of pigs euthanized after 24 hours and employing quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA techniques. Results: Global cerebral ischemia following resuscitation resulted in significant upregulation of cerebral tissue inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression (mean +/- SD; interleukin (IL)-1beta 8.7 +/- 4.0, IL-6 4.3 +/- 2.6, IL-10 2.5 +/- 1.6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha 2.8 +/- 1.8, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) 4.0 +/- 1.9-fold compared with sham control) and IL-1beta protein concentration (1.9 +/- 0.6-fold compared with sham control). Hypothermia was associated with a significant (P <0.05 versus normothermia) reduction in cerebral inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression (IL-1beta 1.7 +/- 1.0, IL-6 2.2 +/- 1.1, IL-10 0.8 +/- 0.4, TNFalpha 1.1 +/- 0.6, ICAM-1 1.9 +/- 0.7-fold compared with sham control). These results were also confirmed for IL-1beta on protein level. Experimental settings employing hypothermia in combination with sevoflurane showed that the volatile anesthetic did not confer additional anti-inflammatory effects com-pared with hypothermia alone. Conclusions: Mild therapeutic hypothermia resulted in decreased expression of typical ce-rebral inflammatory mediators after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This may confer, at least in part, neuroprotection following global cerebral ischemia and resuscitation.

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Author:Patrick MeybohmORCiDGND, Matthias Lars Grünewald, Kai ZacharowskiORCiDGND, Martin Albrecht, Ralph Lucius, Nikola Fösel, Johannes Hensler, Karina Zitta, Berthold Bein
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Critical care
Publisher:Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum
Place of publication:Houten
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2010
Date of first Publication:2010/02/16
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2010/03/10
Issue:1, R21
Page Number:11
First Page:1
Last Page:11
© 2010 Meybohm et al. , licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Source:Critical Care 2010, 14:R21 ; doi:10.1186/cc8879 ;
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 2.0