Studies on the diversity of Apis mellifera L. in Parts of West and Central Africa

  • In order to investigate the diversity of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera L., in West and Central Africa, a total of 204 colonies were sampled from 44 localities in four countries – Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad. 86 of these colonies, from 23 localities, were subjected to full morphometric analysis. In a principal component analysis (PCA) of the morphometric data, the colonies formed a single cluster. It also revealed that overall size of the body was the most important source of variation between the colonies. A hierarchical structure analysis, followed by a stepwise discriminant analysis, classified the colonies into three distinct morphoclusters; however, these clusters were not geographically demarcated. In another PCA carried out with the samples under investigation and reference samples of A. m. adansonii, A. m. jemenitica and A. m. scutellata, the colonies under investigation again formed one cluster which lying over and extended beyond the clusters of the reference subspecies. This is suggestive of a wider variation in size in the bees under investigation. In a stepwise DA, 94.2% of cross-validated grouped cases were correctly classified and the distances between group centroids were highly significant (p < 0.0005) according to F-statistic. 61 and 22 of the 83 colonies under investigation were assigned to A. m. jemenitica and A. m. adansonii, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA analysis was carried out on 148 colonies from 39 localities. Four mitochondrial haplotypes, previously reported from Africa and belonging to the African mitochondrial lineage, A, were detected: A1 (n = 62), A4 (n = 70), A4' (n = 15) and A14 (n = 1). The overall haplotype diversity was low (h = 0.478 ± S. E. 0.057). A chi-square test for association was conducted between haplotypes and type of vegetation, latitude, longitude, altitude, temperature and rainfall, severally. There was a statistically significant association between haplotype and each of the six variables and the association was strong with latitude, moderate with vegetation and rainfall and weak with the remaining variables. The neighbour-joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony trees, obtained from sequence variation of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA, showed that the samples, from the current study, unambiguously clustered with the reference sequences of A. m. scutellata from Kenya, but without showing further subdivision within this sub-Saharan cluster. 133 workers (one per colony) collected from 38 localities were subjected to microsatellite analysis. A total of 292 different alleles were recorded for the 15 microsatellite loci used. All microsatellite loci were polymorphic and the number of different alleles per locus ranged between 10, in locus At163, and 31, in locus A029. Heterozygosity (or gene diversity) was high in all loci. The unbiased expected heterozygosity, which is a better expression of gene diversity, was 0.861 ± S.E. 0.017. The overall FST value, which is a good estimate of genetic differentiation of populations, was very low: 0.007 ± S.E. 0.001 (0.001 - 0.014). AMOVA and Bayesian assignment showed no differentiation of the investigated populations. Based on morphometric analysis, the results of this study present the honeybees of western Africa as a single entity with an internal variation which lacks a geographical demarcation. Consequently the results do not support the splitting of the honeybees of the region into the two subspecies, A. m. adansonii and A. m. jemenitica, as reported in the literature. More morphometric, molecular, physiological and behavioural studies are required to confirm the taxonomic status of the honeybees of the region. Meanwhile, the use of A. m. adansonii, as the sole sub-specific name for the honeybees of West and Central Africa, is recommended.
  • Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, durch die Untersuchung von Proben mit morphometrischen Methoden, sowie der Analyse von mitochondrialer DNA und Mikrosatelliten den Erkenntnisstand zur Variabilität der Honigbienen von Westafrika zu verbessern. Im Einzelnen sollten folgende Ziele erreicht werden: i. Die in Westafrika vorkommenden Unterarten von A. mellifera zu bestimmen ii. Die in Westafrika vorkommenden Populationen von A. mellifera genetisch zu charakterisieren iii. Die genetische Variabilität dieser Bienen zu bestimmen iv. Gründe für die beobachtete Variabilität oder deren Fehlen zu diskutieren v. Die phylogenetische Verwandtschaft dieser Bienen zu bestimmen..

Download full text files

  • usmandukku_print.pdf

Export metadata

Additional Services

Share in Twitter Search Google Scholar
Author:Usman H. Dukku
Referee:Bernd Grünewald, Per Kryger
Advisor:Bernd Grünewald, Marina D. Meixner
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2015
Year of first Publication:2015
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Date of final exam:2015/07/23
Release Date:2016/10/26
Page Number:169
Diese Dissertation steht außerhalb der Universitätsbibliothek leider (aus urheberrechtlichen Gründen) nicht im Volltext zur Verfügung, die CD-ROM kann (auch über Fernleihe) bei der UB Frankfurt am Main ausgeliehen werden.
Institutes:Biowissenschaften / Biowissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 59 Tiere (Zoologie) / 590 Tiere (Zoologie)
Sammlung Biologie / Biologische Hochschulschriften (Goethe-Universität; nur lokal zugänglich)
Licence (German):License LogoArchivex. zur Lesesaalplatznutzung § 52b UrhG