Synthesis, assembly, and intracellular trafficking of members of the cys-loop and P2X families of ligand-gated ion channels

Synthese, Assemblierung und intrazellulärer Transport von Mitgliedern der cys-loop- und P2X-Familie liganden-gesteuerter Ionenkanäle

  • The results presented here strongly indicate that ubiquitination of the recombinant human alpha1 GlyR at the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes is involved in receptor internalisation and degradation. Ubiquitination of the human alpha1 GlyR has been demonstrated by radio-iodination of plasma membrane-boundalpha1 GlyRs, whose subunits differed in molecular weight by additional 7, 14 or 21 kDa, corresponding to the molecular weights of one, two and three conjugated ubiquitin molecules, respectively, and by co-isolation of the non-tagged human alpha1 GlyR through hexahistidyl-tagged ubiquitin. Ubiquitin conjugated GlyRs where prominent at the plasma membrane, but could be hardly detected in total cell homogenates, indicating that ubiquitination takes place exclusively at the plasma membrane. Ubiquitination of the alpha1 GlyR at the plasma membrane was no longer detectable when the ten lysine residues of the cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M3 and M4 were replaced by arginines. Despite this proteolytic cleavage continued to take place at the same extent as with the wild type alpha1 GlyR, suggesting that removal of GlyRs from the plasma membrane and routing to lysosomes for degradation were not dependent on ubiquitination. Also replacing a tyrosine in position 339, which was speculated to be part of an additional endocytosis motif, did not lead to a significant reduction of cleavage of the GlyR alpha1 subunits. However, a mutant lacking both, ubiquitination sites and 339Y, was significantly less processed. These results may suggest that the GlyR alpha1 subunit harbors at least two endocytosis motifs, which may act independently to regulate the density of alpha1 GlyR. Apparently, each of the two signals may be capable of compensating entirely the loss of the other. Part two of this Dissertation demonstrates that the correct topology of the glycine receptor alpha1 subunit depends critically on six positively charged residues within a basic cluster, RFRRKRR, located in the large cytoplasmic loop following the C-terminal end of M3. Neutralization of one or more charges of this cluster, but not of other charged residues in the M3-M4 loop, led to an aberrant translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen of the M3-M4 loop. However, when two of the three basic charges located in the ectodomain linking M2 and M3 were neutralized, in addition to two charges of the basic cluster, endoplasmic reticulum disposition of the M3-M4 loop was prevented. We conclude that a high density of basic residues C-terminal to M3 is required to compensate for the presence of positively charged residues in the M2-M3 ectodomain, which otherwise impair correct membrane integration of the M3 segment. Part three of this Dissertation describes my contribution (blue native PAGE analysis of metabolically labeled alpha7 and 5HT3A receptors and the examination of the glycosylation state of metabolically labeled alpha7 subunits) to a work on the limited assembly capacity of Xenopus oocytes for nicotinic alpha7 subunits. While 5HT3A subunits combined efficiently to pentamers, alpha7 subunits existed in various assembly states including trimers, tetramers, pentamers, and aggregates. Only alpha7 subunits that completed the assembly process to homopentamers acquired complex-type carbohydrates and appeared at the cell surface. We conclude that Xenopus oocytes have a limited capacity to guide the assembly of alpha7 subunits, but not 5HT3A subunits to homopentamers. Accordingly, ER retention of imperfectly assembled alpha7 subunits rather than inefficient routing of fully assembled alpha7 receptors to the cell surface limits surface expression levels of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Part four of this Dissertation describes my contribution (the biochemical analysis of the human P2X2 and P2X6 subtypes) to studies on the quaternary structure of P2X receptors. Armaz Aschrafi, the main author of the paper showed that subsequent to isolation under non-denaturing conditions from Xenopus oocytes the His-rP2X2 protein migrated on blue native PAGE predominantly in an aggregated form. The only discrete protein band detectable could be assigned to homotrimers of the His-rP2X2 subunit. Because of the exceptional assembly-behaviour of the rP2X2 protein compared to the rP2X1, rP2X3, rP2X4 and rP2X5 proteins, its human orthologue was investigated in the same manner. In contrast to rP2X2 subunits, hP2X2 subunits migrated under virtually identical conditions in a single defined assembly state, which could be clearly assigned to a trimer. P2X6 subunits represent the sole P2X subtype that is unable to form functional homomeric receptors in Xenopus oocytes. The blue native PAGE analysis of metabolically labeled hP2X6 receptors and the examination of the glycosylation state revealed that hP2X6 subunits form tetramers and aggregates that are not exported to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes.

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Author:Sven SadtlerGND
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Günter Lambrecht, Günther SchmalzingORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2006/03/09
Year of first Publication:2005
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2005/12/14
Release Date:2006/03/09
GND Keyword:Ionenkanal
Page Number:121
Institutes:Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie / Pharmazie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 54 Chemie / 540 Chemie und zugeordnete Wissenschaften
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht