Resonances and poles in the second Riemann sheet

  • In this work we study basic properties of unstable particles and scalar hadronic resonances, respectively, within simple quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical (effective) models. The term 'particle' is usually assigned to entities, described by physical theories, that are able to propagate over sufficiently large time scales (e.g. from a source to a detector) and hence could be identified in experiments - one especially should be able to measure some of their distinct properties like spin or charge. Nevertheless, it is well known that there exists a huge amount of unstable particles to which it seems difficult to allocate such definite values for their mass and decay width. In fact, for extremely short-lived members of that species, so called resonances, the theoretical description turns out to be highly complicated and requires some very interesting concepts of complex analysis. In the first chapter, we start with the basic ideas of quantum field theory. In particular, we introduce the Feynman propagator for unstable scalar resonances and motivate the idea that this kind of correlation function should possess complex poles which parameterize the mass and decay width of the considered particle. We also brie y discuss the problematic scalar sector in particle physics, emphasizing that hadronic loop contributions, given by strongly coupled hadronic intermediate states, dominate its dynamics. After that, the second chapter is dedicated to the method of analytic continuation of complex functions through branch cuts. As will be seen in the upcoming sections, this method is crucial in order to describe physics of scalar resonances because the relevant functions to be investigated (namely, the Feynman propagator of interacting quantm field theories) will also have branch cuts in the complex energy plane due to the already mentioned loop contributions. As is consensus among the physical community, the understanding of the physical behaviour of resonances requires a deeper insight of what is going on beyond the branch cut. This will lead us to the idea of a Riemann surface, a one-dimensional complex manifold on which the Feynman propagator is defined. We then apply these concepts to a simple non-relativistic Lee model in the third chapter and demonstrate the physical implications, i.e., the motion of the propagator poles and the behaviour of the spectral function. Besides that, we investigate the time evolution of a particle described by such a model. All this will serve as a detailed preparation in order to encounter the rich phenomena occuring on the Riemann surface in quantum field theory. In the last chapter, we finally concentrate on a simple quantm field theoretical model which describes the decay of a scalar state into two (pseudo)scalar ones. It is investigated how the motion of the propagator poles is in uenced by loop contributions of the two (pseudo)scalar particles. We perform a numerical study for a hadronic system involving a scalar seed state (alias the σ-meson) that couples to pions. The unexpected emergence of a putative stable state below the two-pion threshold is investigated and it is claeifieed under which conditions such a stable state appears.

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Author:Thomas Wolkanowski
ArXiv Id:
Referee:Dirk-Hermann RischkeORCiDGND, Francesco GiacosaORCiDGND
Document Type:Master's Thesis
Year of Completion:2014
Year of first Publication:2014
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Release Date:2014/06/03
Page Number:161
First version 14th January 2013, revised version: 24th April 2014.
Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht