Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications

  • Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on 100Mo, 93Mo and 92Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. Experimental data on these isotopes are important to explain the problem of the underproduction of the lighter p-nuclei - 92; 94Mo - within the models of the p-process nucleosynthesis. The reaction rates used in the nucleosynthesis calculations are usually obtained within the framework of the statistical model. In order to verify the model predictions and reduce the uncertainties, experimental measurements of the reaction cross sections are required. In particular, the data on (γ,n) reactions are of interest, since these reactions were shown to dominate the p-process flow in the molybdenum mass region. As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n), 100Mo(γ,2n), 93Mo(γ,n) and 92Mo(γ,n) reactions were determined. The measurement of the 93Mo isotope is particularly important, since this nucleus is unstable, and the corresponding cross section has not been measured before. It should be emphasized that Coulomb dissociation is a unique tool to study photoninduced reactions on unstable nuclei, which is especially relevant in the context of nucleosynthesis network calculations. However, because of to the complexity of the data analysis procedure and a number of model assumptions that are required in order to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section from the data, one of the main aspects of this thesis was to verify the method by comparing the results with the previously published data obtained with real photon beams. Integrated cross sections of the 100Mo(γ,n) and 100Mo(γ,2n) reactions were directly compared to the data by Beil et al., obtained at Saclay with photons from positron annihilation, while an indirect comparison could be performed with a recent photoactivation measurement by Erhard and co-workers. A reasonable agreement was observed for the 1n channel: a scaling factor of 0.8 ± 0.1 between our result and Beil et al. data is consistent with the scaling factor of 0.89±0.09 reported by Erhard et al. between their data and Beil et al. data. Both results are in agreement with the scaling factor of 0.85 ± 0.03 recommended by Berman et al. for the data measured at Saclay on nuclei in the respective mass region. A somewhat lower factor of 0.61 ± 0.09 between the present data and Beil et al. data was obtained for the 2n channel. The discrepancy might be explained by both the substantial efficiency correction that has to be applied to the LAND data in the two-neutron case, as well as by an insufficiently accurate assumption that the Saclay neutron detector efficiency is energy- and multiplicity- independent. A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The calorimetric information that it delivers is essential to reconstruct the energy-differential cross section from the present measurement. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. This result is consistent with several independent investigations, which were performed using different methods. At the same time, a remarkable agreement between the simulated and experimental data was achieved under assumption that the inefficiency of the detector is explained by the loss of data from a number of crystals, which are randomly chosen in each event according to their averaged performance ratio (the ”on-off” effect). The reasons for the observed malfunction are yet not fully clear. Regardless of the exact reason, in the present conditions a deconvolution of the measured data from the CsI response is not possible. Consequently, within the framework of this thesis, the results are presented in terms of integrated cross sections. A search for alternative methods of data interpretation, allowing to extract energy-differential information out of the available data, in currently ongoing. In the more recent experiments at the LAND setup, where the Crystal Ball gamma detector was used as a calorimeter, the reconstruction of the energy-differential cross section with a reasonable resolution was already shown to be feasible. It means that, even considering the uncertainties of the present experiment of the order of 10%, the uncertainties of the statistical model predictions, which are on average estimated to be within a factor of 1.5-2, can already be constrained. The analysis of the present experiment is still in progress. As a next step, Coulomb excitation cross section for 94Mo will be obtained. The 94Mo(γ,n) reaction cannot be studied by photoactivation, since the life time of the daughter nucleus is too long (4000 y). At the same time, this reaction plays a key role in the p-process nucleosynthesis. The future of the LAND setup - the R3B setup1 at FAIR2 - will take advantage of a three orders of magnitude higher intensity of the radioactive beams [85], as well as of a completely new detector system. High-resolution measurements of the energy-differential cross sections will be possible for exotic nuclei, which were never accessible in the laboratory before. Such measurements will open great opportunities for nuclear astrophysics, allowing to obtain high-quality experimental data even for regions of the nuclear chart where the statistical model calculations are not applicable.
  • Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Photodisintegrationsreaktionen an den Isotopen 92;93;100Mo mittels Coulombaufbruch untersucht. Das Experiment wurde im Jahr 2005 am LAND Aufbau an der GSI (Darmstadt) durchgeführt. Wirkungsquerschnitte für Neutronenemission nach Coulombanregung wurden bestimmt und mit Daten vorheriger Experimente mit reellen Photonen verglichen. Dieser Vergleich unterstreicht die Gültigkeit der vorgestellten experimentellen Methode. Experimentelle Daten für Mo-Isotope sind von Bedeutung f¨ur das Verst¨andnis der Produktion der leichten p-Prozess-Nuklide - 92;94Mo - innerhalb des Nukleosynthesemodells f¨ur den p-Prozess...

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Author:Olga ErshovaGND
Referee:René ReifarthORCiD, Thomas AumannORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2011
Year of first Publication:2011
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2012/03/09
Release Date:2014/07/16
Page Number:IV, 178 S.
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Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoArchivex. zur Lesesaalplatznutzung § 52b UrhG