Lattice discretization effects on the QCD phase structure at zero chemical potential and the Roberge-Weiss endpoint

  • Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons. Due to Confinement, at lower energies quarks and gluons are bound into colorless states called hadrons. QCD is also asymptotically free, i.e. at large energies or densities it enters a deconfined state, termed quark-gluon plasma (QGP), where quarks and gluons are quasi-free. This transition occurs at an energy scale around 200 MeV where QCD cannot be treated perturbatively. Instead it can be formulated on a space-time grid. The resulting theory, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD), can be simulated efficiently on high performance parallel-computing clusters. In recent years graphic processing units (GPUs), which outperform CPUs in terms of parallel-computing and memory bandwidth capabilities, became very popular for LQCD computations. In this work the QCD deconfinement transition is studied using CL2QCD, a LQCD application that runs efficiently on GPUs. Furthermore, CL2QCD is extended by a Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for Wilson fermions to allow for simulations of an odd number of quark flavors. Due to the sign-problem LQCD simulations are restricted to zero or very small baryon densities, where, in the limit of infinite quark mass QCD has a first order deconfinement phase transition associated to the breaking of the global centre symmetry. Including dynamical quarks breaks this symmetry explicitly. Lowering their mass weakens the first order transition until it terminates in a second order Z2 point. Beyond this point the transition is merely an analytic crossover. As the lattice spacing is decreased, the reduction of discretization errors causes the region of first order transitions to expand towards lower masses. In this work the deconfinement critical point with 2 and 3 flavors of standard Wilson fermions is studied. To this end several kappa values are simulated on temporal lattice extents 6,8,10 (4) for two flavors (three flavors) and various aspect ratios (spatial lattice extent / temporal lattice extent) so as to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit, applying finite size scaling. For two flavors an estimate is done if and when a continuum extrapolation is possible. The chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at zero density for light and heavy quarks, respectively, have analytic continuations to purely imaginary chemical potential, where no sign-problem exists and LQCD simulations can be applied. At some critical value of the imaginary chemical potential, the transitions meet the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition between adjacent Z3 sectors. For light and heavy quarks the transition lines meet in a triple point, while for intermediate masses they meet in a second order point. At the boundary between these regimes the junction is a tricritical point, as shown in studies with two and three flavors of staggered and Wilson quarks on lattices with a temporal lattice extent of 4. Employing finite size scaling the nature of this point as a function of the quark mass is studied in this work for two flavors of Wilson fermions with a temporal lattice extent of 6. Of particular interest is the change of the location of tricritical points compared to an earlier study on lattices with temporal extent of 4.
Author:Christopher CzabanGND
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Owe PhilipsenORCiDGND, Marc WagnerGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2018/06/01
Year of first Publication:2018
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2018/05/04
Release Date:2018/06/19
Page Number:xv, 165
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht