Standard reference values of the upper body posture in healthy young female adults in Germany : an observational study

  • Objective: Classifications of posture deviations are only possible compared with standard values. However, standard values have been published for healthy male adults but not for female adults. Design: Observational study. Setting: Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main. Participants: 106 healthy female volunteers (21–30 years old; 25.1±2.7 years) were included. Their body weight ranged from 46 to 106 kg (60.3±7.9 kg), the heights from 1.53 to 1.82 m (1.69±0.06 m) and the body mass index from 16.9 kg/m² to 37.6 kg/m² (21.1±2.6 kg/m²). Outcome measures: A three-dimensional back scan was performed to measure the upper back posture in habitual standing. The tolerance ranges and CI were calculated. Group differences were tested by the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In normal posture, the spinal column was marginally twisted to the left, and the vertebrae were marginally rotated to the right. The kyphosis angle is larger than the lumbar angle. Consequently, a more kyphotic posture is observed in the sagittal plane. The habitual posture is slightly scoliotic with a rotational component (scapular depression right, right scapula marginally more dorsally, high state of pelvic right, iliac right further rotated anteriorly). Conclusions: Healthy young women have an almost ideally balanced posture with minimal ventral body inclination and a marginal scoliotic deviation. Compared with young males, women show only marginal differences in the upper body posture. These values allow a comparison to other studies, both for control and patient data, and may serve as guideline in both clinical practice and scientific studies.
Author:Daniela Maren OhlendorfORCiDGND, Vanessa Fisch, Charlotte Doerry, Sebastian Schamberger, Maximilian Johannes Gerhard OremekORCiDGND, Hanns AckermannGND, Johannes Schulze
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):BMJ open
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
Place of publication:London
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2018
Date of first Publication:2018/08/05
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2018/10/30
Tag:back scan; body posture; female subjects; standard value
Issue:8, e022236
Page Number:7
First Page:1
Last Page:7
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
Institutes:Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften / Sportwissenschaften
Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (English):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 4.0