Reduction of relative centrifugation force within injectable platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) concentrates advances patients’ own inflammatory cells, platelets and growth factors : the first introduction to the low speed centrifugation concept

  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze systematically the influence of the relative centrifugation force (RCF) on leukocytes, platelets and growth factor release within fluid platelet-rich fibrin matrices (PRF). Materials and methods: Systematically using peripheral blood from six healthy volunteers, the RCF was reduced four times for each of the three experimental protocols (I–III) within the spectrum (710–44 g), while maintaining a constant centrifugation time. Flow cytometry was applied to determine the platelets and leukocyte number. The growth factor concentration was quantified 1 and 24 h after clotting using ELISA. Results: Reducing RCF in accordance with protocol-II (177 g) led to a significantly higher platelets and leukocytes numbers compared to protocol-I (710 g). Protocol-III (44 g) showed a highly significant increase of leukocytes and platelets number in comparison to -I and -II. The growth factors’ concentration of VEGF and TGF-β1 was significantly higher in protocol-II compared to -I, whereas protocol-III exhibited significantly higher growth factor concentration compared to protocols-I and -II. These findings were observed among 1 and 24 h after clotting, as well as the accumulated growth factor concentration over 24 h. Discussion: Based on the results, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to enrich PRF-based fluid matrices with leukocytes, platelets and growth factors by means of a single alteration of the centrifugation settings within the clinical routine. Conclusions: We postulate that the so-called low speed centrifugation concept (LSCC) selectively enriches leukocytes, platelets and growth factors within fluid PRF-based matrices. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of cell and growth factor enrichment on wound healing and tissue regeneration while comparing blood concentrates gained by high and low RCF.
Author:Joseph Choukroun, Shahram GhanaatiORCiDGND
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):European journal of trauma and emergency surgery
Publisher:Springer Medizin
Place of publication:Heidelberg
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2017
Date of first Publication:2017/03/10
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2018/11/22
Tag:A-PRF+; Centrifugation; I-PRF; Inflammation; Leukocytes; Pain; Platelet-rich fibrin; Platelets; Tissue engineering
Page Number:9
First Page:87
Last Page:95
Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0