Liver injury by carbon tetrachloride intoxication in 16 patients treated with forced ventilation to accelerate toxin removal via the lungs : a clinical report

  • Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl4 may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl4. Among various therapy options, the CO2-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl4 is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl4 elimination through the lungs, CO2 is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2–3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25–30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl4 intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation.

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Author:Rolf Teschke
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Toxics
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2018
Date of first Publication:2018/04/27
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2019/11/11
Tag:CO2-induced forced ventilation; aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons; carbon tetrachloride; cytochrome P450 2E1; hyperbaric oxygen treatment
Issue:2, Art. 25
Page Number:32
First Page:1
Last Page:32
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0