Analysis of 4-fluoroamphetamine in cerumen after controlled oral application

  • Cerumen was found to be a promising alternative specimen for the detection of drugs. In a pilot study, drugs of abuse were identified at a higher detection rate and a longer detection window in cerumen than in urine. In this study, cerumen from subjects was analyzed after they ingested the designer stimulant 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) in a controlled manner. Methods: Twelve subjects ingested placebo and 100 mg of 4-FA. Five of them were also given 150 mg of 4-FA in 150 mL Royal Club bitter lemon drink at least after 7 days. Cerumen was sampled using cotton swabs at baseline, 1 h after the ingestion of the drug and at the end of the study day (12 h). After extraction with ethyl acetate followed by solid-phase extraction, the extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Results and discussion: In the cerumen of all 12 subjects, 4-FA was detected 12 h after its ingestion; in most subjects, cerumen was detected after 1 h of ingestion, ranging from 0.06 to 13.90 (median 1.52) ng per swab. The detection of 4-FA in cerumen sampled 7 days or more after the first dose suggested a long detection window of cerumen. Conclusions: Cerumen can be successfully used to detect a single drug ingestion even immediately after the ingestion when a sufficient amount of cerumen is used.
Author:Sylvia Meier, Silvana Petzel-Witt, Manfred Schubert-ZsilaveczGND, Elizabeth B. de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Eef L. Theunissen, Johannes G. Ramaekers, Stefan Tönnes
Parent Title (English):Drug testing and analysis
Place of publication:Hoboken, NJ
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2020/04/04
Date of first Publication:2020/04/04
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/03/16
Tag:4-fluoroamphetamine; alternative matrices; cerumen; drug abstinence; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
Page Number:7
First Page:968
Last Page:974
Institutes:Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (English):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 4.0