Cyclostratigraphic and lithological characteristics of lacustrine sediments obtained from geophysical downhole measurements and seismic data – Lake Ohrid (North Macedonia/Albania) and Lake Towuti (Indonesia)

  • As part of two drilling campaigns of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), several geophysical borehole measurements were carried out by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG) in two lakes. The acquired data was used to answer stratigraphic and paleoclimatic research questions, including the establishment of robust age-depth models and the construction of continuous lithological profiles. Lake Towuti is located on Sulawesi (Indonesia), within the "Indo-Pacific Warm Pool" (IPWP), a globally important region for atmospheric heat and moisture budgets. The lake exists for approximately one million years, but its exact age is uncertain. We present the first agedepth model for the approximately 100 m continuous sediment sequence from the central part of the lake. The basis for this model is the magnetic susceptibility measured in the borehole and a tephra layer with an age of about 797 ka at 72 m depth. Our age-depth model is inferred from cyclostratigraphic analysis of borehole data and covers a period from 903 ± 11 to 131 ± 67 ka. We suggest that orbital eccentricity and/or changes between global cold and warm periods are responsible for hydroclimatic changes in the IPWP, that these changes affect sedimentation processes in Lake Towuti, and that we can measure and observe this effect in the sediment properties today. Additionally, we created a continuous artificial lithological profile from a series of different borehole data using cluster analysis. This provides information from parts of the borehole where no sediment is available due to core loss. Lake Ohrid is 1.36 million years old and is located on the Balkan Peninsula on the border between Albania and North Macedonia. The primary hole 'DEEP' in the central part of the lake has been the subject of several investigations, but information about sediments of the marginal locations 'Pestani' and 'Cerava' have not been published yet. In our study, we use natural gamma radiation (GR) measured in the borehole to generate an age-depth model for DEEP. This is performed using the correlation of GR to the global LR04 reference record of Lisiecki and Raymo (2005). The age information is then transferred via prominent seismic marker horizons to the other two sites, Pestani and Cerava, where it provides the first age-control points for the construction of age-depth models from correlation of GR to LR04. The generated age-depth models are tested using cyclostratigraphic methods, but the limits of this approach are revealed. At DEEP, sedimentation rates (SR) from the cyclostratigraphic method and the correlative approach differ by 2.8 %, at Pestani this difference is 16.7 %, and at Cerava the quality of the data does not allow a reliable evaluation of SR using the cyclostratigraphic approach. We used cluster analysis to construct artificial lithological profiles at all three sites and integrated them into the respective age-depth models. This enables us to determine which sediment types were deposited at what time, and we recognize the change between warm and cold periods in the sediment properties at all three locations. The analyses in this study were all performed on borehole and seismic data and thus do not involve sediment core data. Especially at Pestani and Cerava, new insights into the sedimentological history of Lake Ohrid could be obtained. In the last part we discuss the occurrence of the half-precession (HP) signal in the European region during the last one million years. The focus is on Lake Ohrid, but a range of other proxies, from the eastern Mediterranean, across the European continent, up to Greenland are analyzed in regards to HP. Applying filters, we focus on the frequency range with a period of 13-8.5 ka and only HP remains in the records. We use correlative methods to determine the clarity of the HP signal in proxies distributed across the European realm. Additionally, we determined the development of HP over time. The HP signal is clearest in the southeast and decreases toward the north. It is further more pronounced in interglacial periods and in the younger part (<621 ka) of most proxies. We suggest that there are mechanisms that transmit the HP signal from its origin near the equator to higher latitudes via different processes. In this context, for instance, the African monsoon, the Nile River and the Mediterranean outflow via the Strait of Gibraltar can be important factors.

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Author:Arne UlfersORCiDGND
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Silke VoigtORCiDGND, Andreas Junge
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2022/06/08
Year of first Publication:2022
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2022/05/13
Release Date:2022/07/18
Page Number:107
Last Page:96
Kumulative Dissertation - enthält die Verlagsversionen (Version of Record) der folgenden Artikel:

Ulfers, A.; Hesse, K.; Zeeden, C.; Russell, J. M.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S.; Wonik, T. (2021): Cyclostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental inference from downhole logging of sediments in tropical Lake Towuti, Indonesia. Journal of paleolimnology 65 (4) S. 377-392, ISSN 1573-0417. DOI 10.1007/s10933-020-00171-9

Ulfers, A.; Zeeden, C.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Buness, H.; Wonik, T. (2022): Borehole logging and seismic data from Lake Ohrid (North Macedonia/Albania) as a basis for age-depth modelling over the last one million years. Quaternary science reviews 276, ISSN 0277-3791. DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107295

Ulfers, Arne; Zeeden, Christian; Voigt, Silke; Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Wonik, Thomas (2022): Half-precession signals in Lake Ohrid (Balkan) and their spatiotemporal relations to climate records from the European realm. Quaternary science reviews 280, ISSN 0277-3791. DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107413
Institutes:Geowissenschaften / Geographie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 55 Geowissenschaften, Geologie / 550 Geowissenschaften
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht