Computational investigation of selective one- and two-photon induced activation of photolabile protecting groups: from VIPER spectroscopy to tandem uncaging

  • This work deals with the theoretical investigation of the vibrationally promoted electronic resonance (VIPER) experiment, the intramolecular energy transfer within a rhodamine-BODIPY antenna system initiated by two-photon excitation and a computational study of the photochemical mechanism of the uncaging of the [7-(dimethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl (DEACM) class of photocages . In continuation to Jan von Cosel’s work, the setup for the theoretical investigation of the VIPER experiment has been extended to two-photon absorption (TPA) also including the first-order Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects which are dependent on changes with respect to nuclear coordinates. The VIPER experiment constitutes an extended form of two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy with a sequence of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) or visible (vis) pulses. The molecular system under probe is excited initially by a narrow-band IR pump pulse and then electronically excited by an off-resonant UV/vis pulse. An IR probe pulse is applied afterwards to probe the system and record a 2DIR spectrum in combination with the first pulse. Since the lifetime of the vibrational excitation is very short, the electronic excitation by the UV/vis pulse is used to enlarge the lifetime of the excitation in the molecule and thus enable measurements on a longer timescale. Therefore, it becomes easier to study dynamical photochemical processes on long timescales. In the VIPER experiment with TPA, the UV/vis pulse is replaced by a near-infrared (NIR) pulse which offers an intrinsic 3D resolution, minimzed photodamage, a lower noise level and an increased penetration depth. This makes TPA highly attractive for biological systems among a wide range of other possible applications. The computation of the vibrationally resolved electronic absorption spectra accounts for the Franck-Condon (FC) contributions which are independent of the nuclear framework as well as the HT effects which are dependent on the nuclear coordinates. The FC contributions are dominant for electronically-allowed transitions whereas HT contributions could be important for weakly-allowed or forbidden transitions. Laying emphasis on TPA, the test systems used belong to the category of two-photon active compounds. The initial candidate is dimethylaminonitrodibenzofuran (DMA-NDBF) which has been reported to be a two-photon only caging compound. The other system is a well-known laser dye, a rhodamine derivative of the commercially available rhodamine 101 (Rh101). Rhodamines are also recognized for their excellent TPA characteristics. The findings for both the test systems show interesting contrasts. The one-photon absorption (OPA) and TPA spectrum together with vibronic couplings present the same lineshape in case of DMA- NDBF and also the HT effects have very weak contributions to the vibronic spectrum. Insignificant HT effects are quite typical for electronically allowed transitions. Overall, the NO2 bending mode exhibits the strongest change in the absorption spectrum upon vibrational pre-excitation, even stronger than in the case of different ring distortion modes that usually show a high VIPER activity. In the case of rhodamine, the vibronic OPA spectrum is pre-dominantly the FC spectrum and the HT couplings have a very weak contribution. The vibronic TPA spectrum is entirely dominated by the HT contributions and hence, the vibrationally resolved TPA spectrum of the rhodamine is a HT-only spectrum. Explanations towards this behaviour have been reported by Milojevich et al. which are holding the change in symmetry of the molecular orbital transitions from the ground to the excited state accountable. No significantly VIPER-active normal modes could be determined owing to the low magnitudes of their dimensionless displacements that are connected to the Huang-Rhys factors. Two ring distortion modes however have been probed but the intensity of their vibrational pre-excitation is observed to be very low. The other part of this work is concerned with the estimation of the rate of the intramolecular energy transfer within rhodamine-BODIPY dyads. After the investigations on the prospective rhodamine derivatives, the Rho101 derivative shows the highest TPA activity. This linked together with the BODIPY derivative with styryl substituents through an acetylene bond has been probed theoretically as well as experimentally for the excitation energy transfer (EET). Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal an ultrafast energy transfer process on femtosecond timescales. The theoretical estimation of the EET rates through the Förster theory and the determination of the coupling between the donor and acceptor groups by the transition density cube (TDC) method falls short of the experimental results. Because of this disagreement, quantum dynamics simulations with the multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method have been performed on an adapted rhodamine-BODIPY molecular dyad which reveal that the energy transfer occurs through transient coherence whose mechanism cannot be described by Förster theory ...

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Author:Madhava Shyam NiraghatamGND
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Irene BurghardtORCiD, Jens BredenbeckORCiD
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2022/04/07
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2022/06/30
Release Date:2022/07/21
Institutes:Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 54 Chemie / 540 Chemie und zugeordnete Wissenschaften
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht