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The extension of the Periodic System into hitherto unexplored domains - anti- matter and hypermatter - is discussed. Starting from an analysis of hyperon and single hypernuclear properties we investigate the structure of multi-hyperon objects (MEMOs) using an extended relativistic meson field theory. These are contrasted with multi-strange quark states (strangelets). Their production mechanism is stud- ied for relativistic collisions of heavy ions from present day experiments at AGS and SPS to future opportunities at RHIC and LHC. It is pointed out that abso- lutely stable hypermatter is unlikely to be produced in heavy ion collisions. New attention should be focused on short lived metastable hyperclusters ( / 10 10s) and on intensity interferometry of multi-strange-baryon correlations.

Collisions of very heavy ions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier are discussed as a unique tool to study the behavior of the electron-positron field in the presence of strong external electromagnetic fields. To calculate the excitation processes induced by the collision dynamics, a semiclassical model is employed and adapted to describe the field-theoretical many-particle system. An expansion in the adiabatic molecular basis is chosen. Energies and matrix elements are calculated using the monopole approximation. In a supercritical (Z1+Z2≳173) quasiatomic system the 1s level joins the antiparticle continuum and becomes a resonance, rendering the neutral vacuum state unstable. Several methods of treating the corresponding time-dependent problem are discussed. A projection-operator technique is introduced for a fully dynamical treatment of the resonance. Positron excitation rates in s1/2 and p1/2 states are obtained by numerical solution of the coupled-channel equations and are compared with results from first- plus second-order perturbation theory. Calculations are performed for subcritical and supercritical collisions of Pb-Pb, Pb-U, U-U, and U-Cf. Strong relativistic deformations of the wave functions and the growing contributions from inner-shell bound states lead to a very steep Z dependence of positron production. The results are compared with available data from experiments done at GSI. Correlations between electrons and positrons are briefly discussed.

We calculate the spin polarization of 1sσ vacancies and emitted δ electrons induced by the strong magnetic field (|Bmax|∼1016G) in collisions of very heavy ions (Z1+Z2=178). The electron excitations are determined by the solution of coupled-channel equations within the quasimolecular basis states including the vector potential. The formulation is extended to the many-electron case. Spin polarizations of the order of 5-10% for impact energies below the Coulomb barrier are predicted.

Two-center level diagrams for the neutron orbitals in the scattering of 16O on 25Mg and of 17O on 24Mg are calculated by using a deformed potential for 24,25Mg. Possible consequences of the nuclear Landau-Zener mechanism, namely the promotion of nucleons at avoided level crossings, and of the rotational coupling between crossing molecular single-particle orbitals are studied for inelastic excitation and neutron transfer. The important excitation and transfer processes, which are enhanced by the promotion process and the rotational coupling, are presented. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Heavy ion scattering, theory of nucleon transfer, molecular wave functions, asymmetric two center shell model, single particle excitation, deformed nuclei.

We compare a proximity-type potential for two interacting nuclei with the double-folding method. Both spherical and deformed systems are considered. Special "orientation windows" are found for two deformed nuclei giving rise to nuclear cohesion. If the same nucleon-nucleon interaction is utilized, the proximity and the double-folding potentials agree fairly well for a spherical + deformed system. However, deviations are found in the case of two deformed nuclei.

The energy shift of K electrons in heavy atoms due to the self-energy correction has been calculated. This process is treated to all orders in Zα, where Z denotes the nuclear charge. For the superheavy system Z=170, where the K-shell binding energy reaches the pair-production threshold (E1sb∼2mc2), a shift of +11.0 keV is found. This shift is almost cancelled by the vacuum polarization, leaving a negligible effect for all quantum-electrodynamical corrections of order α but all orders of Zα.

For the scattering of 28Si on 28Si coupled channel calculations of the elastic scattering and inelastic single excitation of the first 2+ state of 28Si are carried out. The real coupling potentials are calculated in the framework of an adiabatic model. The resulting cross sections reveal structures in agreement with the observed ones and support their interpretation as nuclear molecular resonances.

Different collective deformation coordinates for neutrons and protons are introduced to allow for both stretching and γ transitions consistent with experiments. The rotational actinide nuclei 234-238U and 232Th are successfully analyzed in this model. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 232Th, 234-238U calculated B (E2) values, collective model.

Within an extended semiquantal theory we perform large-sized coupled-channel calculations involving 260 collective levels for Coulomb fission of 238U. Differential Coulomb fission cross sections are studied as a function of bombarding energy and impact parameter for several projectiles. In the Xe + U case, total cross sections are also given. We find a strong dependence on projectile charge number, PCF(180°)∼(Zp)6 in the region 50≤Zp≤92 for a fixed ratio E/ECoul, which might be helpful to separate Coulomb fission experimentally from sequential fission following transfer reactions. Since the cross sections are sensitive to the moment of inertia ⊖ at the saddle point, Coulomb fission can serve as a tool to investigate the dependence of ⊖ on elongation. The fragment angular distribution exhibits deviations from 1/sinθf which are pronounced at low incident energies. Our theory indicates that the recently measured Xe + U fission cross sections contain a major fraction of Coulomb-induced fission at E≤0.85 ECoul. NUCLEAR REACTIONS, FISSION Calculated Coulomb fission cross sections σ(Ep,θp) for 54Xe, 67Ho, 82Pb, 92U→92238U, fragment angular distribution, fission energy spectrum, mean spin value 〈Jf〉.

On the basis of the two-center shell model a theory is developed for the excitation of loosely bound nucleons in heavy ion collisions. These nucleons move in the two-center shell model potential generated by all the nucleons and are described by molecular wave functions. The model is applied to calculate the cross sections for the elastic and inelastic 13C-13C scattering. The cross sections show intermediate structures caused by the excitation of quasibound resonances in the molecular nucleus-nucleus potential. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 13C(13C,13C) molecular wave functions, dynamical two-center shell model, quasimolecular resonances, radial and Coriolis coupling, coupled channel calculations for σ(θ).