Reliability and current-adaptability studies of a 352 MHz, 17 MeV, continuous-wave injector for an accelerator-driven system
- EUROTRANS is a European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). As proposed, the driver linac needs to deliver a 2.5–4 mA, 600 MeV continuous-wave (CW) proton beam and later a 20 mA, 800 MeV one to the spallation target in the prototype-scale and industrial-scale demonstration phases, respectively. This paper is focusing on the conceptual studies performed with respect to the 17 MeV injector. First, the special beam dynamics strategies and methods, which have been developed and applied to design a current-variable injector up to 30 mA for allowing an easy upgrade without additional R&D costs, will be introduced. Then the error study made for evaluating the tolerance limits of the designed injector will be presented as well.
Rezente und subfossile Birkenbruchwälder in Nordwestdeutschland
- Mit Hilfe von Großrestuntersuchungen wurden die Vegetationsabfolgen von zwei nordwestdeutschen Moorstandorten näher bestimmt. Dabei ließ sich auch das Vorkommen von Birkenbruchwäldern nachweisen, deren Vegetationsstrukturen untersucht wurden. Stellenweise zeigt sich eine abnehmende Eutrophie. Gleichzeitige Untersuchungen an rezenten Birkenbruchwäldern bestätigen floristische Ähnlichkeiten. 14-C-Datierungen zeigen für einen subfossilen Bruchwald ein dreitausendjähriges Bestehen (6695 +-185 bis 3615+-80 v.Chr.).
Einfluß der Streuzersetzung auf die Vegetationsentwicklung brachliegender Rasengesellschaften
- Die Vegetationsentwicklung auf Brachflächen hängt vor allem vom Ausgangspflanzenbestand, der Phytomassenproduktion und der Abbaugeschwindigkeit des toten Pflanzenmaterials ab. Bei sehr niedriger Phytomassenproduktion ist die Sukzessionsdynamik in der Regel gering, selbst wenn das tote Pflanzenmaterial langsam mineralisiert wird. Große Artenverluste sind in den Pflanzengesellschaften zu erwarten, die eine mittlere bis hohe Produktion an Pflanzenmasse und eine langsame Streuzersetzung aufweisen. Bei einem schnellen Streuabbau können dagegen neue Arten in den Bestand einwandern.
Abundanzschwankungen in einer nordwestdeutschen trockenen Heide
- 12jährige Untersuchungen eines Dauerquadrats , das in einer trockenen Heide (Geniato-Callunetum) des NSG "Heiliges Meer" bei Hopsten lag, ergaben folgendes: Der Schlag und die Mahd der angeflogenen Jungbirken sowie die Behandlung der Sträucher mit Herbiziden führten zur Verminderung der Holzgewächse. Infolgedessen vermehrten sich das Heidekraut (Calluna vulgaris) und die Moose. Das Heidekraut verdrängte wiederum die Gräser. Der Rückgang der Flechten ist wohl sicher auf Luftverschmutzung zurückzuführen.
Littorelletea-Gesellschaften in der Westfälischen Bucht
- Mit zunehmender Nährstoffanreicherung der oligotrophen Gewässer in unserer intensiv genutzten Kulturlandschaft ist ein stetiger Rückgang der Littorelletea Gesellschaften verbunden. Diese oligotraphenten Wasser- und Sumpfpflanzengesellschaften gehören zum speziellen Vegetationsinventar der nährstoffarmen Diluviallandschaft, sie werden aber in fortschreitendem Maße an ihren natürlichen Standorten durch eutraphente Pflanzen und Pflanzengesellschaften verdrängt.
Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents and young adults with PTSD symptoms after physical and sexual abuse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
- Background: Although childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is known to have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence on psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Equally sparse are data on moderators of treatment response on PTSD-related epigenetic changes, health care costs and loss of productivity, alterations in cognitive processing, and on how successful interventions affect all of these factors. Early treatment may prevent later (co)morbidity. In this paper, we present a study protocol for the evaluation of a newly developed psychotherapeutic manual for PTSD after CSA/CPA in adolescents and young adults – the Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT).
Methods/design: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) D-CPT is compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 90 adolescent outpatients aged 14 to 21 years will be randomized to one of these conditions. Four assessments will be carried out at baseline, at end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after end of therapy. Each time, patients will be assessed via clinical interviews and a wide range of questionnaires. In addition to PTSD symptoms and comorbidities, we will evaluate moderators of treatment response, epigenetic profiles, direct and indirect costs of this disorder, and neurophysiological processing of threat cues in PTSD and their respective changes in the course of these two treatments (D-CPT and TAU).
Discussion: The study will provide new insights in the understudied field of PTSD in adolescents and young adults. A newly developed intervention will be evaluated in this therapeutically underserved population. Results will provide data on treatment efficacy, direct and indirect treatment costs, as well as on associations of treatment outcome and PTSD intensity both to epigenetic profiles and to the neurobiological processing of threat cues. Besides, they will help to learn more about the psychopathology and possible new objective correlates of PTSD.
Trial registration:Germanctr.de identifier: DRKS00004787.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates dendritic cell function: focus on non-migratory effects in vitro and in vivo
Heinfried Hermann Radeke
- Dendritic cells (DCs) are the cutting edge in innate and adaptive immunity. The major functions of these antigen-presenting cells are the capture, endosomal processing and presentation of antigens, providing them an exclusive ability to provoke adaptive immune responses and to induce and control tolerance. Immature DCs capture and process antigens, migrate towards secondary lymphoid organs where they present antigens to naive T cells in a well-synchronized sequence of procedures referred to as maturation. Indeed, recent research indicated that sphingolipids are modulators of essential steps in DC homeostasis. It has been recognized that sphingolipids not only modulate the development of DC subtypes from precursor cells but also influence functional activities of DCs such as antigen capture, and cytokine profiling. Thus, it is not astonishing that sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolism play a substantial role in inflammatory diseases that are modulated by DCs. Here we highlight the function of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) on DC homeostasis and the role of S1P and S1P metabolism in inflammatory diseases.
Controlled intramyocardial release of engineered chemokines by biodegradable hydrogels as a treatment approach of myocardial infarction
Birgit K. Kramp
Tilman M. Hackeng
Elisa A. Liehn
Rory R. Koenen
- Myocardial infarction (MI) induces a complex inflammatory immune response, followed by the remodelling of the heart muscle and scar formation. The rapid regeneration of the blood vessel network system by the attraction of hematopoietic stem cells is beneficial for heart function. Despite the important role of chemokines in these processes, their use in clinical practice has so far been limited by their limited availability over a long time-span in vivo. Here, a method is presented to increase physiological availability of chemokines at the site of injury over a defined time-span and simultaneously control their release using biodegradable hydrogels. Two different biodegradable hydrogels were implemented, a fast degradable hydrogel (FDH) for delivering Met-CCL5 over 24 hrs and a slow degradable hydrogel (SDH) for a gradual release of protease-resistant CXCL12 (S4V) over 4 weeks. We demonstrate that the time-controlled release using Met-CCL5-FDH and CXCL12 (S4V)-SDH suppressed initial neutrophil infiltration, promoted neovascularization and reduced apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. Thus, we were able to significantly preserve the cardiac function after MI. This study demonstrates that time-controlled, biopolymer-mediated delivery of chemokines represents a novel and feasible strategy to support the endogenous reparatory mechanisms after MI and may compliment cell-based therapies.
Focus on quantum efficiency
Gregory D. Scholes
Ulrich T. Schwarz
- Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cuttingedge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.
Enhancement of Intratumoral Chemotherapy with Cisplatin with or without Microwave Ablation and Lipiodol. Future Concept for Local Treatment in Lung Cancer
Thomas J. Vogl
J. Francis Turner
- Novel therapies for lung cancer are being explored nowadays with local therapies being the tip of the arrow. Intratumoral chemotherapy administration and local microwave ablation have been investigated in several studies. It has been previously proposed that lipiodol has the ability to modify the microenvironment matrix. In our current study we investigated this theory in BALBC mice. In total 160 BALBC mice were divided in eight groups: a) control, b) cisplatin, c) microwave, d) microwave and lipiodol, e) cisplatin and lipiodol, f) microwave and cisplatin, g) lipiodol and h) lipiodol, cisplatin and microwave. Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines (106) were injected into the right back leg of each mouse. After the 8th day, when the tumor volume was about 100mm3 the therapy application was initiated, once per week for four weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for each tumor when a mouse died or when sacrificed if they were still alive by the end of the experiment (8-Canal multifunctional spool; NORAS MRI products, Gmbh, Germany). Imaging and survival revealed efficient tumor apoptosis for the groups b,c,d,e and f. However; severe toxicity was observed in group h and no follow up was available for this group after the second week of therapy administration. Lipiodol in its current form does assist in a more efficient way the distribution of cisplatin, as the microwave apoptotic effect. Future modification of lipiodol might provide a more efficient method of therapy enhancement. Combination of drug and microwave ablation is possible and has an efficient apoptotic effect.