Phase Ib study evaluating a self-adjuvanted mRNA cancer vaccine (RNActive®) combined with local radiation as consolidation and maintenance treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer
Sven D. Koch
Altered mucosal immune response after acute lung injury in a murine model of Ataxia Telangiectasia
Su Youn Kim
Pretubulysin: a new option for the treatment of metastatic cancer
R. M. Wiedmann
B. A. Abhari
A. M. Vollmar
- Tubulin-binding agents such as taxol, vincristine or vinblastine are well-established drugs in clinical treatment of metastatic cancer. However, because of their highly complex chemical
structures, the synthesis and hence the supply issues are still quite challenging. Here we set on stage pretubulysin, a chemically accessible precursor of tubulysin that was identified as a potent microtubule-binding agent produced by myxobacteria. Although much simpler in chemical structure, pretubulysin abrogates proliferation and long-term survival as well as anchorage-independent growth, and also induces anoikis and apoptosis in invasive tumor cells equally potent to tubulysin. Moreover, pretubulysin posseses in vivo efficacy shown in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with T24 bladder tumor cells, in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells and finally in a model of lung metastasis induced by 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Pretubulysin induces cell death via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by abrogating the expression of pivotal antiapoptotic proteins, namely Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and shows distinct chemosensitizing properties in combination with TRAIL in two- and three-dimensional cell culture models. Unraveling the underlying signaling pathways provides novel information: pretubulysin induces proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (especially JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)) and phosphorylation of Mcl-1, which is then targeted by the SCF(Fbw7) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination and degradation. In sum, we designate the microtubule-destabilizing compound pretubulysin as a highly promising novel agent for mono treatment and combinatory treatment of invasive cancer.
Connexin 37 and Connexin 43 genotypes in correlation to cytokines in induced sputum and blood in cystic fibrosis (CF)
- Meeting abstract: Abstracts of the 50th Workshop for Pediatric Research
We have provided evidence in former studies that cytokines (IL-8, TNF alpha, LBP, TGFß) measured in blood correlate negatively with lung function in deltaF508 homozygous patients...
Adaptive resistance to immunotherapy directed against p53 can be overcome by global expression of tumor-antigens in dendritic cells
- Immunotherapy of cancer utilizes dendritic cells (DCs) for antigen presentation and the induction of tumor-specific immune responses. However, the therapeutic induction of anti-tumor immunity is limited by tumor escape mechanisms. In this study, immortalized dendritic D2SC/1 cells were transduced with a mutated version of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, p53M234I, or p53C132F/E168G, which are overexpressed in MethA fibrosarcoma tumor cells. In addition, D2SC/1 cells were fused with MethA tumor cells to generate a vaccine that potentially expresses a large repertoire of tumor-antigens. Cellular vaccines were transplanted onto Balb/c mice and MethA tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses were examined in vaccinated animals. D2SC/1-p53M234I and D2SC/1-p53C132F/E168G cells induced strong therapeutic and protective MethA tumor immunity upon transplantation in Balb/c mice. However, in a fraction of immunized mice MethA tumor growth resumed after an extended latency period. Analysis of these tumors indicated loss of p53 expression. Mice, pre-treated with fusion hybrids generated from D2SC/1 and MethA tumor cells, suppressed MethA tumor growth and averted adaptive immune escape. Polyclonal B-cell responses directed against various MethA tumor proteins could be detected in the sera of D2SC/1-MethA inoculated mice. Athymic nude mice and Balb/c mice depleted of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells were not protected against MethA tumor cell growth after immunization with D2SC/1-MethA hybrids. Our results highlight a potential drawback of cancer immunotherapy by demonstrating that the induction of a specific anti-tumor response favors the acquisition of tumor phenotypes promoting immune evasion. In contrast, the application of DC/tumor cell fusion hybrids prevents adaptive immune escape by a T-cell dependent mechanism and provides a simple strategy for personalized anti-cancer treatment without the need of selectively priming the host immune system.
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Medizin der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für den Masterstudiengang Molekulare Medizin mit dem Abschluss "Master of Science" (M.Sc.) vom 6. September 2012 in der Fassung vom 3. April 2014 : genehmigt vom Präsidium in der Sitzung am 12. August 2014
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Medizin der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für den Masterstudiengang Molekulare Medizin mit dem Abschluss "Master of Science" (M.Sc.) vom 6. September 2012 : genehmigt vom Präsidium in der Sitzung am 15. Juli 2014
- Aufgrund von § 44 Abs. 1 Nr. 1 des Hessischen Hochschulgesetzes vom 14. Dezember 2009 (GVBl. I S. 666), zuletzt geändert durch Gesetz vom 27. Mai 2013 (GVBl. S. 218), hat der Fachbereichsrat des Fachbereichs Medizin der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 3. April 2014 die nachstehende Änderung beschlossen:...
Histologische, histomorphometrische und klinische Vergleichsanalyse eines synthetischen und eines xenogenen Knochenersatzmaterials zur Sinusbodenaugmentation bei ehemaligen Tumorpatienten
Jonas Michael Lorenz
- In der vorliegenden Promotion wurde erstmals die Gewebsreaktion ehemaliger Tumorpatienten auf das synthetische Knochenersazmaterial Nanobone® (NB) und das xenogene Knochenerstazmaterial Bio-Oss® (BO) untersucht. In einem Patientenkollektiv von acht Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen im Mund- und Halsbereich, die im Vorfeld der Studie erfolgreich therapiert wurden, wurden in einer split-mouth design Studie die beiden Knochenersatzmaterialien zur Sinusbodenaugmentation verwendet und nach sechsmonatiger Einheilphase histologisch und histomorphometrisch untersucht. Um den Einfluss der beiden Augmentationsmaterialien auf den Erfolg und das Überleben der Implantate zu evaluieren, wurden zudem die Implantate nach einem Zeitraum von zwei Jahren klinisch und radiologisch nachuntersucht. ...
Targeting survivin in cancer: novel drug development approaches
- Survivin is a well-established target in experimental cancer therapy. The molecule is over-expressed in most human tumors, but hardly detectable in normal tissues. Multiple functions in different subcellular compartments have been assigned. It participates in the control of cell division, apoptosis, the cellular stress response, and also in the regulation of cell migration and metastasis. Survivin expression has been recognized as a biomarker: high expression indicates an unfavorable prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation treatment. Survivin is an unconventional drug target and several indirect approaches have been exploited to affect its function and the phenotype of survivin-expressing cells. Interference with the expression of the survivin gene, the utilization of its messenger RNA, the intracellular localization, the interaction with binding partners, the stability of the survivin protein, and the induction of survivin-specific immune responses have been taken into consideration. A direct strategy to inhibit survivin has been based on the identification of a specifically interacting peptide. This peptide can recognize survivin intracellularly and cause the degradation of the ligand–survivin complex. Technology is being developed that might allow the derivation of small molecular-weight, drug-like compounds that are functionally equivalent to the peptide ligand.
Chronic ethanol feeding modulates inflammatory mediators, activation of nuclear factor-κB, and responsiveness to endotoxin in murine Kupffer cells and circulating leukocytes
- Chronic ethanol abuse is known to increase susceptibility to infections after injury, in part, by modification of macrophage function. Several intracellular signalling mechanisms are involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses, including the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In this study, we investigated the systemic and hepatic effect of chronic ethanol feeding on in vivo activation of NF-κB in NF-κB(EGFP) reporter gene mice. Specifically, the study focused on Kupffer cell proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and activation of NF-κB after chronic ethanol feeding followed by in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that chronic ethanol upregulated NF-κB activation and increased hepatic and systemic proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similarly, LPS-stimulated IL-1 β release from whole blood was significantly enhanced in ethanol-fed mice. However, LPS significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol feeding can improve the responsiveness of macrophage LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-α production and indicate that this effect may result from ethanol-induced alterations in intracellular signalling through NF-κB. Furthermore, LPS and TNF-α stimulated the gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, in part, in a NF-κB-dependent manner.