Function of plant photosystem II subunits in photoprotection
- Plants absorb sunlight via photosynthetic pigments and convert light energy intochemical energy in the process of photosynthesis. These pigments are mainly bound to antenna protein complexes that funnel the excitation energy to the photosynthetic reaction centres. The peripheral antenna of plant photosystem II (PSII) consists of the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHC-II) and the minor LHCs CP29, CP26 and CP24. Light intensity can change frequently and plants need to adapt to high-light conditions in order to avoid photodamage. When more photons are absorbed than can be utilised by the photosynthetic machinery, excessive excitation energy is dissipated as heat by short-term adaptation processes collectively known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). A decrease in PSII antenna chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield and a reduction in the average Chl fluorescence lifetime are associated with NPQ. The main component of NPQ is the so-called energy-dependent quenching (qE), and it is triggered by the rapid drop in thylakoid lumenal pH resulting from the plant’s photosynthetic activity. This process is thought to take place at the PSII antenna complexes, which therefore not only capture and transfer light energy but are also involved in balancing the energy flow. The decrease in lumenal pH acivates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the xanthophyll violaxanthin (Vio) into zeaxanthin (Zea) in the xanthophyll cycle. In addition, the PSII subunit PsbS was discovered to be essential for qE by screening qE-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. This membrane protein is considered a member of the LHC superfamily, which also includes LHC-II and the minor LHCs. Previous studies on PsbS isolated either from native source or refolded in vitro have produced inconsistent results on its pigment binding capacity. Interestingly, a pH-dependent change in the quaternary structure of PsbS under high light conditions has been reported. This observed dimer-tomonomer transition very likely follows the protonation of lumenal glutamates upon the drop in pH and is accompanied by a change in PSII supercomplex localisation. PsbS dimers are preferentially found in association with the PSII core, whereas PsbS monomers co-localise with LHC-II.Despite the identification of !pH, Zea and PsbS as key players in qE, both the nature of the quencher(s) as well as the underlying molecular mechanism leading to excess energy dissipation still remain unknown. Several models have been put forward to explain the reversible switch in the antenna from an energy-transmitting to a quenched state. Proposals include a simple pigment exchange of Vio for Zea, and aggregation or an internal conformational change of LHC-II. Charge transfer (CT)quenching in the minor LHCs or quenching by carotenoid dark state (Car S1)-Chl interactions have also been suggested. However, none of these qE models has so far been capable of accommodating all the physiological observations and available experimental data. Most importantly, the function of PsbS remains an enigma. A recent qE model suggested that monomerisation of PsbS enables the protein to transiently bind a carotenoid and form a quenching unit with a Chl of a PSII LHC. In view of the various proposed qE mechanisms, this thesis aimed at understanding the interplay of the different qE components and the contribution of the PSII subunits LHC-II, the minor LHCs and PsbS to qE. The initial approach was to investigate the properties of the PSII subunits in the most simple in vitro model system, namely in detergent solution. For this purpose, LHC-II was isolated either from native source or refolded from recombinantly produced protein. Investigation of the minor LHCs and PsbS required heterologous expression and refolding. In addition, experiments were performed on aggregated LHC-II. Aggregates of LHC-II have been used as a popular model system for qE because they exhibit highly quenched Chl fluorescence. At the final stage of this doctoral work, a more sophisticated model system to approximate the thylakoid membrane was developed by reconstitution of the PSII subunits LHC-II and PsbS into liposomes. This system not only allowed for investigation of these membrane proteins in their native environment, but also for mimicking the xanthophyll cycle by distribution of Zea within the membrane as well as !pH by outside buffer exchange. The role of Zea in qE was first investigated with detergent solubilised antenna proteins. The requirement of this xanthophyll for qE is well-known, but the specific contribution to the molecular quenching mechansim is unclear. Previous work had shown that replacement of Vio for Zea in LHC-II was not sufficient to induce Chl fluorescence quenching in Zea-LHC-II, as suggested by the so-called molecular gearshift mechanism. However, by means of selective two-photon excitation spectroscopy, an increase in electronic interactions between Car S1 and Chls was observed for LHC-II upon lowering the pH of the detergent buffer. Electronic Car S1-Chl coupling became even stronger when Zea-LHC-II was probed. The extent of Car S1-Chl coupling correlated directly with the extent of Chl fluorescence quenching, in a similar way as observed previously in live plants under high-light conditions. However, very similar results were obtained with LHC-II aggregates. This implied that the increase in electronic interactions and fluorescence quenching was independent of Zea and low pH. Further experiments on aggregates of LHC-II Chl mutants indicated that the targeted pigments were also not essential for the observed effects. It is proposed that the same molecular mechanism causes an increase in electronic Car S1-Chl interactions and Chl fluorescence quenching in Zea-LHC-II at low pH as well as in aggregated LHC-II. Most likely, surface exposed pigments form random quenching centres in both cases. On the other hand, it was possible that Zea could act as a direct quencher of excess excitation energy in the minor LHCs. However, enrichment of refolded CP29, CP26 and CP24 with Zea did not lead to a change in the Chl excited state lifetime. Formation of a carotenoid radical cation, previously implied in CT quenching, was also not observed, although artificial generation of such a radical cation was principally possible as shown for CP29. During the course of this work, a study reporting the formation of Zea radical cations in minor LHCs was published. Therefore, Zea-enriched minor LHCs were again investigated on the experimental apparatus used in the reported study. Indeed, the presence of at least one carotenoid radical cation for each minor complex was detected. It is suggested that either the preparation method of incubating the refolded minor LHCs with Zea in contrast to refolding the complexes with only Zea and lutein causes the observed differences or that the observed spectral radical cation signatures are due to experimental artifacts. While the experiments with LHC-II and the minor LHCs gave useful insights into the putative qE mechanism, the quencher site and the mode of action of Zea could still not be unambiguously identified. Most importantly, these studies could not explain the function of the qE keyplayer PsbS. Therefore, the focus of the work was shifted to PsbS protein production, purification and characterisation. In view of inconsistent reports on the pigment binding capacity of this PSII subunit, refolding trials with and without photosynthetic pigments were conducted. The formation of a specific pigmentprotein complex typical for other LHCs was not observed and neither was the earlier reported “activation” of Zea for qE by binding to this protein. Nevertheless, PsbS refolded without pigments displayed secondary structure content in agreement with previous studies, indicating pigment-independent folding. Reconstitution of pigmentfree, refolded PsbS into liposomes confirmed that the protein is stable in the absence of pigments. Zea distributed in PsbS-containing liposomes also showed no spectral alteration that would indicate its “activation”. With the ability to reconstitute PsbS, it was then possible to proceed to modelling qE in a proteoliposome system. For this purpose, PsbS was co-reconstituted with LHC-II, which has been reported to interact with PsbS. One-photon excitation (OPE) and two-photon excitation (TPE) spectroscopy measurements were performed on LHC-II- and LHC-II/PsbS-containing liposomes. This enabled both quantification of Chl fluorescence quenching as well as determination of the extent of electronic Car S1-Chl interactions. The effect of Zea was investigated by incorporating it in the proteoliposome membrane. It was shown that Zea alone was not able to induce significant Chl fluorescence quenching when only LHC-II was present. However, when LHC-II and PsbS were co-reconstituted, pronounced Chl fluorescence quenching and an increase in electronic Car S1-Chl interactions were observed and both effects were enhanced when Zea was present. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of a LHC-II/PsbS-heterodimer in these proteoliposomes. In addition to the OPE and TPE measurements, the average Chl fluorescence lifetime was determined in detergent-free buffer at neutral pH and directly after buffer exchange to low pH. No significant changes in the average lifetime were observed for LHC-II proteoliposomes when either Zea was present or after exchange for low pH buffer. This indicated that Zea alone cannot act as a direct quencher, which concurs with the OPE measurements. Moreover, the complex was also properly reconstituted as no aggregation or significant Chl fluorescence quenching were observed. The average lifetime was not significantly affected in LHC-II/PsbS-proteoliposomes, independent of Zea or pH. However, a shortlived component in the presence of a long-lived component was not resolvable with the time resolution of the fluorescence lifetime apparatus.
Implications for qE model systems and the in vivo quenching mechanism are discussed based on the experiments in detergent solution, on LHC-II aggregates and with the proteoliposome model system.
Charakterisierung der Rolle von α-Taxilin [Alpha-Taxilin] für den Zelleintritt und die Morphogenese von Hepatitis B
- Eine Infektion mit dem Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) kann bei 5-10 % der infizierten Erwachsenen und 70-90 % der infizierten Kinder chronisch verlaufen. Trotz einer verfügbaren Impfung gegen die Erkrankung sind heute nach Angaben der WHO weltweit etwa 350 Mio. Menschen chronisch HBV-infiziert [Lupberger and Hildt, 2007, Hollinger and Liang, 2001]. In 5-10 % der Fälle führt eine chronische Infektion zu einer Leberfibrose und Zirrhose, welche letztlich zur Ausbildung eines hepatozellulären Karzinoms (HCC) führen kann. HCCs sind die dritthäufigste karzinomassoziierte Todesursache weltweit [Blum, 2005]. Um Therapien gegen eine HBV-Infektion und das damit erhöhte Risiko einer HCC-Entstehung entwickeln zu können, müssen die einzelnen Schritte des HBV-Replikationszyklus verstanden sein. Wesentliche Schritte der frühen Infektionsphase, insbesondere der Rezeptor bzw. Rezeptorkomplex, welcher den Zelleintritt des Virus vermittelt sowie der Transport des Virusgenoms in den Zellkern, sind bisher noch unklar. Auch der Exportprozess und die Freisetzung der Viruspartikel ist bisher noch nicht im Detail verstanden. Es ist jedoch bekannt, dass die Viruspartikel unter Nutzung der zellulären ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-Maschinerie aus der Zelle freigesetzt werden [Lambert et al., 2007]. Auf der Suche nach Faktoren, die in diese Vorgänge involviert sind, konnte in dieser Arbeit das vesikeltransportassoziierte Protein α-Taxilin identifiziert werden. Der Einfluss von HBV auf die α-Taxilin-Bildung und seine mögliche Beteiligung am viralen Export wurden dabei näher charakterisiert. In HBV-positiven Zellen konnte in vivo und in vitro eine signifikante Steigerung der α-Taxilin-Expression nachgewiesen werden. Diese wird hierbei durch die HBV-Proteine HBx und LHBs über den Raf/Mek/Erk-Signalweg induziert [Glatzel, 2011]. Mithilfe von knockdown-Experimenten konnte beobachtet werden, dass α-Taxilin für den Export der Viruspartikel, nicht aber für den Export subviraler Partikel (SVPs) essentiell ist. Der Export der Virionen findet hierbei über das ESCRT-System statt. Den HBV-Strukturproteinen fehlen jedoch die für die Interaktion mit dem ESCRT-System essentiellen late-Domänen. Die Proteinstruktur von α-Taxilin dagegen weist diese late-Domänen auf. In dieser Arbeit konnte diese interaktionsvermittelnde Funktion von α-Taxilin zwischen dem Virus und dem ESCRT-System charakterisiert werden. Über eine Interaktion von α-Taxilin mit dem viralen LHBs-Protein auf der einen Seite und der tsg101-Komponente des ESCRT-I-Komplexes auf der anderen Seite agiert α-Taxilin als eine Art Linker zwischen dem ESCRT-System und HBV.
Darüber hinaus wurde Annexin A5 als zellulärer Interaktionspartner für α-Taxilin identifiziert [Röttger, 2011]. Es dirigiert α-Taxilin in einer Art shuttle-Funktion auf die Zellmembran suszeptibler Zellen und bindet es an deren Zelloberfläche. Diese Exposition von α-Taxilin nimmt während der Dedifferenzierung in Korrelation mit dem Suszeptibilitätsverlust primärer Hepatozyten ab. Eine Maskierung von α-Taxilin durch eine vorherige Inkubation der Zellen mit α-Taxilin-spezifischen Antikörpern konnte die Bindung und die Aufnahme der Viren inhibieren. Überexpressionsstudien bestätigten die essentielle Rezeptorfunktion von α-Taxilin. Die verstärkte Produktion von α-Taxilin führte zur Suszeptibilität der Zellen. Auch die Speziesspezifität der Bindung zwischen humanem α-Taxilin und HBV konnte in einem Co-Immunpräzipitationsexperiment mit den rezeptorbindenden Domänen von HBV, WHV und DHBV identifiziert werden.
In der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte somit zum ersten Mal eine Rezeptorfunktion von α-Taxilin bei der Aufnahme von HBV in die Wirtszelle nachgewiesen werden. Darüber hinaus schreiben die in dieser Arbeit gemachten Beobachtungen α-Taxilin eine essentielle Funktion für die Vermittlung des ESCRT-abhängigen Exports der Virionen aus der Zelle zu. Die hierbei gewonnen Erkenntnisse sind von hoher Relevanz für die weitere Erforschung der HBV-assoziierten Pathogenese und die Etablierung eines in vivo Infektions-Modells.
Selection of functional human antibodies from retroviral display libraries
Johannes H. Urban
Richard M. Schneider
Christian J. Buchholz
- Antibody library technology represents a powerful tool for the discovery and design of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for their targets. To extend the technique to the expression and selection of antibody libraries in an eukaryotic environment, we provide here a proof of concept that retroviruses can be engineered for the display and selection of variable single-chain fragment (scFv) libraries. A retroviral library displaying the repertoire obtained after a single round of selection of a human synthetic scFv phage display library on laminin was generated. For selection, antigen-bound virus was efficiently recovered by an overlay with cells permissive for infection. This approach allowed more than 10(3)-fold enrichment of antigen binders in a single selection cycle. After three selection cycles, several scFvs were recovered showing similar laminin-binding activities but improved expression levels in mammalian cells as compared with a laminin-specific scFv selected by the conventional phage display approach. Thus, translational problems that occur when phage-selected antibodies have to be transferred onto mammalian expression systems to exert their therapeutic potential can be avoided by the use of retroviral display libraries.
Biophysical Studies of Lipid Membranes by Solid State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations
- Biological membranes separate the cell interior from the outside and have diverse functions from signal transduction, apoptosis to transportations of ions and small molecules in and out of the cell. Most of these functions are fulfilled by proteins incorporated in the membrane. However, lipids as the main component of membrane not only serve as structural element for bilayer formation but they are also directly involved e.g. signalling processes and bilayer properties are important to mediate protein interactions. To fully understand the role of lipids, it is necessary to develop a molecular understanding of how certain membrane components modify bulk bilayer structure and dynamics. Membranes are known to have many different motions in different conditions and time scales. Temperature, pH, water content and many other conditions change membrane dynamics in a high degree. In addition to this, time scales of motions in membranes vary from ns to ms range corresponding to fast motion and slow motion, respectively. Therefore, membranes are needed to be studied systematically by varying the conditions and using methods to investigate motions in various time scales separately. The aim of this study was therefore perform a combined solid-state NMR / molecular dynamics study on model membranes. Different substrates, such as potential drugs, polarizing agents and signaling lipids were incorporated into bilayers and their location within the membrane and their effect onto the membrane was probed. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), pirinixic acid derivatives, ceramides and polarizing agents were the substrates for membranes in this study. There were several experimental methods that were applied in order to investigate effects of these substrates on membrane dynamics. Different kind of phospholipids including POPC, DMPC and DPPC were used. In addition to experimental work, with the information gathered from solid state NMR experiments molecular dynamics simulations were performed to obtain more information about the membranes at the molecular level. As a result, combination of solid-state NMR with molecular dynamics simulations provides very systematic way of investigating membrane dynamics in a large range of time scales.
Pirinixic acid derivatives were special interest of this study because of their activity on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) as an agonist as well as on enzymes of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (PGE2s) -1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as dual inhibitor. Two potent pirinixic acid derivatives, 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoic acid (compound 2) and 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoate (compound 3), have been worked and their insertion depts were investigated by combining of solid state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and theoretical results pointed out that compound 3 was inserted the phospholipid bilayer more deeply than 2. NSAIDs – lipid mixtures have been also studied here. It is known that consumption of NSAIDs as in mixture with lipids results much fewer side effects than consumption of the drugs alone. Thus, it is crucial to understand interactions of NSAIDs with lipids and investigate the possible complex formation of drugs with lipids. In this study, interactions of three widely used NSAIDs, ibuprofen, diclofenac and piroxicam, with DPPC were investigated by solid-state NMR. 1H and 31P NMR results depicted that ibuprofen and diclofenac had interactions with lipids, which is an indication of drug-lipid complex formation whereas piroxicam didn’t show any interactions with lipids suggesting that no complex formation occurred in the case of piroxicam. Ceramides are known to play key roles in many cell processes and many studies showed that the functions of ceramides are related with the ceramide effects on biological membranes. Therefore, in this study, influences of ceramides on biophysics of lipid bilayers were investigated by using various solid state NMR techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. Results from molecular dynamics simulations clearly showed that ceramide and lipids have strong interactions. More evidences about ceramide-lipid interactions were provided from 1H and 14N NMR results. In addition, it was indicated by both simulation and experimental methods that ceramide increased the rigidity of DMPC by increasing chain order parameters. BTbk is a biradical, which is used as polarizing agent for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments and found to be more efficient than other widely used polarizing agents such as TOTAPOL. Since it is a hydrophobic compound, which prefers to stay inside lipid bilayer it is important to investigate the location and orientation of bTbk along the bilayer in order to understand its enhancement profile in DNP measurements. In this study, both NMR relaxation time measurements and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that bTbk tends to stay more close to hydrophobic chain of lipids than the interfacial part of lipids at bilayer surface.
In the first part of this work, a brief introduction on lipid membranes as well as a theoretical summary on both methods of solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations is given. Then, in the second part methodology is introduced for both solid-state NMR spectrometer and theoretical calculations. Afterwards, results of different membrane systems are discussed in the following parts for both solid state NMR and MD. Finally, in the last part, a summary and the conclusion of the overall results together with some future plans are explained.
Insights into a Lipid Regulator by Solid-State MAS NMR: Kinetic and Structure-Functional Studies on Diacylglycerol Kinase
Sandra Johanna Ullrich
- In this thesis the integral membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) from E.coli is investigated with solid-state NMR. The aim is to gain an insight into the enzyme’s mechanism through integration of kinetic, structural and dynamic data. The biological function of DAGK is the transfer of the γ-phosphate group from Mg*ATP to diacylglycerol (DAG) building phosphatidic acid (PA) as port of the membrane-derived oligosaccharide cycle[31,34]. Surprisingly, DAGK does not share structural or sequential similarities with other kinases. Typical sequence motives found in other kinases, which catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions, are not found. In its physiological form DAGK is a homo-trimer with nine transmembrane helices, three catalytic centers and a size of 39.6 kDa.
First, the set-up of a real-time 31P MAS NMR experiment is shown. This experiment allows measuring in real-time the simultaneous ATP hydrolysis in the aqueous phase and lipid substrate phos-phorylation in the membrane phase with atomic resolution under magic angle spinning. After fast transfer of the sample into the NMR spectrometer the enzymatic reaction is started with a temperature jump. This approach of real-time MAS NMR in a dual-phase system was demonstrated for the lipid substrate analogs dioleoyl- (DOG) and dibutyrylglycerol (DBG), with a C8 and C4 aliphatic chain, respectively. The combination of 31P direct and cross polarization functions as a dynamic filter. In the 31P direct polarized experiment nuclei in both phases are detected, while in the 31P cross polar-ized experiment, only nuclei in the membrane phase are detected. Rates for substrate turnover, i.e. degradation of γP-, βP, αP-ATP and build-up of βP-, αP-ADP, free phosphate as side reaction, and PA are obtained, which reveal a Michaelis-Menten behavior with regard to Mg*ATP and DBG. Here Mg*ATP and DBG follow a random-equilibrium model, where every substrate can bind indepen-dently from the other substrate. Analyses of the peak integrals from educts and products of the enzymatic reaction, revealed the stoichiometry of the reaction: 1.5 ATP molecules are used to phos-phorylate one DBG molecule. The excess of ATP is attributed to the basal ATPase activity. Further-more, experiments with ATPγS, usually regarded as a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, where carried out. Surprisingly, DAGK hydrolyzes ATPγS and also transfers the thio-phosphate group to the lipid acceptor DBG, which points to a certain degree of plasticity in the active center. A phosphorylated enzyme intermediate was not detected. These results suggest the building of a ternary complex of Mg*ATP, DBG and DAGK performing a direct-phosphoryl transfer reaction, without passing through a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. Experiments with the transition state analog ortho-vanadate (Vi) showed a decoupling of the ATP hydrolysis activity from lipid substrate phosphorylation. This indicates a specific transfer site for the γ-phosphate group from ATP to DAG, which can be blocked by Vi.
A general disadvantage of NMR spectroscopy compared to other spectroscopic methods is its inherent low sensitivity. One possible starting point for the improvement of signal-to-noise per unit time is the reduction of the spin-lattice relaxation time of protons. Usually 95 % of the experi-mental time is required for the relaxation of the 1H to equilibrium. The addition of paramagnetic species can be used to reduce the 1H T1. In a comprehensive study four different paramagnetic agents were tested: Cu2+-EDTA, Cu2+-EDTA-tag, Gd3+-TTAHA and Gd3+-DOTA. The titration of these paramagnetic complexes showed the principle feasibility of this approach, but differences between the tested species exist. The most promising complex is Gd3+-DOTA which, at a concentration of 2 mM, causes a 10-time improvement of signal-to-noise ratio per unit time. This allowed measuring 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of proteoliposomes in one tenth of the usual required experimental time (i.e. 10 hours vs. 4 days) with good signal-to-noise.
For the investigation of structural or dynamic changes in the protein upon substrate interaction with MAS NMR, the spectral properties CP efficiency and resolution of the DAGK in liposomes needed to be improved. The most critical step during sample preparation is the reconstitution of the membrane protein from detergent micelles into a membrane of synthetic lipids under detergent removal. For this procedure the important criteria are enzymatic activity, measured in a coupled ATPase assay, and homogeneity of the proteoliposomes, which was tested e.g. on a discontinuous sucrose step gradient. Therefore an extensive study was carried out, in which different detergents, lipids and lipid mixtures, techniques for detergent removal and different protein-to-lipid ratios were tested. A direct correlation between high ATPase activity and good resolution was not found. Moreover, active DAGK in a mixture of DMPC and cholesterol, which emulates the membrane features of a membrane containing DAG, showed the best CP efficiency and resolution.
The assignment of the protein backbone and amino acid side chains the first mandatory step towards the investigation of structural and dynamical features influencing and defining the enzymatic mechanism by MAS NMR. As the assignment procedure is very time consuming for a total protein, a special labeling scheme for DAGK was developed, which allows assigning most of the protein areas presumably involved in enzyme catalysis. The assignment of DAGK with solution NMR was not transferable to the MAS NMR spectra. Most important for the assignment process were the unique pairs, two consecutive amino acids which only appear once in the amino acid sequence. These unique pairs served as anchor points. Five different multinuclear MAS NMR experiments (DARR, NCO, NCA, NCACX, NCOCX) were required for the sequential assignment. It was possible to assign 35 % of the total amino acid sequence with one sample and 8 experiments acquired at 850 MHz. The secondary structure analysis showed subtle differences to the DAGK assignment with solution NMR, which can be attributed to the different environment in lipid bilayers and detergent micelles.
Data about structural and dynamical changes under substrate interaction can reveal details about the enzymatic mechanism. Therefore changes in chemical shift in 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments in the apo-state and under substrate saturated conditions with the substrates Mg*AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, DOG, a mixture of Mg*AMP-PNP and DOG as well as inhibited by Vi were recorded. The most significant peak changes were observed at the interface membrane-cytoplasm as well as the the N-terminal amphipathic helix. The residues revealing chemical shift perturbations correlate with conserved residues or such residues, for which importance for catalysis and/or folding could be shown in mutation studies. Especially noticeable were the changes at the amino acids Asn 72, Lys 64, His 87, Tyr 86 and Asp 95.
Beside changes of the chemical shift, changes of line width or signal doubling were observable. These changes can point to a correlation with dynamic reorientations in the μs-ms time regime, which are most relevant for enzymatic processes. The protein backbone dynamics in the apo-state as well as saturated with the substrates or inhibited with Vi were investigated with a 15N-CODEX experiment, which is based on the reorientation of the CSA tensor upon dynamical changes. Specific effects of the different substrates or analogs on the protein backbone dynamic were revealed complementing the structural data and the chemical shift perturbation experiments.
On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols
Sándor L. Bekö
Martin U. Schmidt
Jacco van de Streek
- Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006[Simperler, A., Watt, S. W., Bonnet, P. A., Jones, W. & Motherwell, W. D. S. (2006). CrystEngComm, 8, 589-600.]). CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect of molecular symmetry, and that the three lowest melting points may need to be revised. This prompted a full investigation, with additional experiments on six of the nine inositols. Thirteen new phases were discovered; for all of these their crystal structures were examined. The crystal structures of eight ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of melting. Several previously reported melting points were shown to be solid-to-solid phase transitions or decomposition points. Our experiments have revealed a complex picture of phases, rotator phases and phase transitions, in which a simple correlation between melting points and hydrogen-bonding patterns is not feasible.
CCDC references: 891302; 891303; 891304; 891305; 891307; 891309
Characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase and its heterologous production in Escherichia coli
- This work presents a biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase obtained using both a native form (AAF1FO) and a heterologous form (EAF1FO) of this enzyme.
F1FO ATP synthases catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate driven by ion motive forces across the membrane and therefore play a key cellular function. Because of their central role in supporting life, F1FO ATP synthases are ubiquitous and have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution. For their biological importance, F1FO ATP synthases have been extensively studied for many decades and many of them were characterized from both a functional and a structural standpoint. However, important properties of ATP synthases – specifically properties pertaining to their membrane embedded subunits – have yet to be determined and no structures are available to date for the intact enzyme complex. Therefore, F1FO ATP synthases are still a major focus of research worldwide. Our research group had previously reported an initial characterization of AAF1FO and had indicated that this enzyme presents unique features, i.e. a bent central stalk and a putatively heterodimeric peripheral stalk. Based on such a characterization, this enzyme revealed promising for structural and functional studies on ATP synthases and became the focus of this doctoral thesis. Two different lines of research were followed in this work.
First, the characterization of AAF1FO was extended by bioinformatic, biochemical and enzymatic analyses. The work on AAF1FO led to the identification of a new detergent that maintains a higher homogeneity and integrity of the complex, namely the detergent trans-4-(trans-4’-propylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl-α-D-maltoside (α-PCC). The characterization of AAF1FO in this new detergent showed that AAF1FO is a proton-dependent, not a sodium ion-dependent ATP synthase and that its ATP hydrolysis mechanism needs to be triggered and activated by high temperatures, possibly inducing a conformational switch in subunit γ. Moreover, this approach suggested that AAF1FO may present unusual features in its membrane subunits, i.e. short N-terminal segments in subunits a and c with implications for the membrane insertion mechanism of these subunits.
Investigating on these unique features of A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase could not be done using A. aeolicus cells, because these require a harsh and dangerous environment for growth and they are inaccessible to genetic manipulations. Therefore, a second approach was pursued, in which an expression system was created to produce the enzyme in the heterologous host E. coli. This second approach was experimentally challenging, because A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is a 500-kDa multimeric membrane enzyme with a complicated and still not entirely determined stoichiometry and because its encoding genes are scattered throughout A. aeolicus genome, rather than being organized in one single operon. However, an artificial operon suitable for expression was created in this work and led to the successful production of an active and fully assembled form of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. Such artificial operon was created using a stepwise approach, in which we expressed and studied first individual subunits, then subcomplexes, and finally the entire F1FO ATP synthase complex. We confirmed experimentally that subunits b1 and b2 form a heterodimeric subcomplex in the E. coli membranes, which is a unique case among ATP synthases of non-photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, we determined that the b1b2 subcomplex is sufficient to recruit the soluble F1 subcomplex to the membranes, without requiring the presence of the other membrane subunits a and c. The latter subunits can be produced in our expression system only when the whole ATP synthase is expressed, but not in isolation nor in the context of smaller FO subcomplexes. These observations led us to propose a novel mechanism for the assembly of ATP synthases, in which first the F1 subcomplex attaches to the membrane via subunit b1b2, and then cring and subunits a assemble to complete the FO subcomplex. Furthermore, we could purify the heterologous ATP synthase (EAF1FO) to homogeneity by chromatography and electro-elution. Enzymatic assays showed that the purified form of EAF1FO is as active as AAF1FO. Peptide mass fingerprinting showed that EAF1FO is composed of the same subunits as AAF1FO and all soluble and membrane subunits could be identified. Finally, single-particle electron microscopy analysis revealed that the structure of EAF1FO is identical to that of AAF1FO. Therefore, the EAF1FO expression system serves as a reliable platform for investigating on properties of AAF1FO.
Specifically, in this work, EAF1FO was used to study the membrane insertion mechanism of rotary subunit c. Subunits c possess different lengths and levels of hydrophobicity across species and by analyzing their N-terminal variability, four phylogenetic groups of subunits c were distinguished (groups 1 to 4). As a member of group 2, the subunit c from A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is characterized by an N-terminal segment that functions as a signal peptide with SRP recognition features, a unique case for bacterial F1FO ATP synthases. By accurately designing mutants of EAF1FO, we determined that such a signal peptide is strictly necessary for membrane insertion of subunit c and we concluded that A. aeolicus subunit c inserts into E. coli membranes using a different pathway than E. coli subunit c. Such a property may be common to other ATP synthases from extremophilic organisms, which all cluster in the same phylogenetic group.
In conclusion, the successful production of the fully assembled and active F1FO ATP synthase from A. aeolicus in E. coli reported in this work provides a novel genetic system to study A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. To a broader extent, it will also serve in the future as a solid reference for designing strategies aimed at producing large multi-subunit complexes with complicated stoichiometry.
CD20 and CD19 targeted vectors induce minimal activation of resting B
Christian J. Buchholz
- B lymphocytes are an important cell population of the immune system. However, until recently it was not possible to transduce resting B lymphocytes with retro- or lentiviral vectors, making them unsusceptible for genetic manipulations by these vectors. Lately, we demonstrated that lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with modified measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin, responsible for receptor recognition, and fusion protein were able to overcome this transduction block. They use either the natural MV receptors, CD46 and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), for cell entry (MV-LV) or the vector particles were further modified to selectively enter via the CD20 molecule, which is exclusively expressed on B lymphocytes (CD20-LV). It has been shown previously that transduction by MV-LV does not induce B lymphocyte activation. However, if this is also true for CD20-LV is still unknown. Here, we generated a vector specific for another B lymphocyte marker, CD19, and compared its ability to transduce resting B lymphocytes with CD20-LV. The vector (CD19ds-LV) was able to stably transduce unstimulated B lymphocytes, albeit with a reduced efficiency of about 10% compared to CD20-LV, which transduced about 30% of the cells. Since CD20 as well as CD19 are closely linked to the B lymphocyte activation pathway, we investigated if engagement of CD20 or CD19 molecules by the vector particles induces activating stimuli in resting B lymphocytes. Although, activation of B lymphocytes often involves calcium influx, we did not detect elevated calcium levels. However, the activation marker CD71 was substantially up-regulated upon CD20-LV transduction and most importantly, B lymphocytes transduced with CD20-LV or CD19ds-LV entered the G1b phase of cell cycle, whereas untransduced or MV-LV transduced B lymphocytes remained in G0. Hence, CD20 and CD19 targeting vectors induce activating stimuli in resting B lymphocytes, which most likely renders them susceptible for lentiviral vector transduction.
Biochemical and functional analysis of the ubiquitin binding properties of the NF-κB regulator NEMO
- Posttranslationale Modifikationen regulieren wesentliche Eigenschaften von Proteinen, wie z. B. Lokalisation, Konformation, Aktivität, Stabilität und Interaktionsfähigkeit. Eine besondere Form der Proteinmodifikation ist die Ubiquitylierung, bei der das kleine Protein Ubiquitin mit seinem C-Terminus kovalent an ein Substratprotein gebunden wird.
Die am besten untersuchte Funktion der Ubiquitylierung ist die Markierung eines Substrates für den Abbau durch das Proteasom. In den letzten Jahren wurde jedoch entdeckt, dass Ubiquitylierung in vielen Bereichen der Zelle eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Dazu gehören der Transport von Vesikeln, die Reparatur von DNA-Schäden und zelluläre Signalübertragung. Ubiquitin kann verschieden-artige Ketten bilden, indem ein Ubiquitin an eines der sieben Lysine (K6, K11, K27, K29, K33, K48, K63) oder den N-Terminus eines anderen gebunden wird. Diese unterschiedlichen Kettentypen regulieren verschiedene Prozesse. Z. B. dienen K48-verknüpfte Ubiquitinketten als Signal für den proteasomalen Abbau, wohingegen über K63 verknüpfte Ketten hauptsächlich eine Rolle bei Signalübertragungen spielen.
Die meisten Funktionen die durch Ubiquitylierung reguliert werden, werden durch Ubiquitinrezeptoren vermittelt, die eine Ubiquitinbindedomäne (UBD) besitzen. Manche UBDs binden selektiv nur einen Ubiquitinkettentyp und sind somit in der Lage gezielt Prozesse regulieren zu können, indem sie nur durch diesen speziellen Kettentyp aktiviert werden.
Das Protein NEMO ist ein Ubiquitinrezeptor, dessen UBD UBAN selektiv bestimmte Ubiquitinketten bindet. NEMO spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Aktivierung der Transkriptionsfaktorfamilie NF-κB, indem es den IKK-Kinasekomplex reguliert. Dieser Kinasekomplex sorgt durch die Phosphorylierung des NF-κB-Inhibitors IκBα für dessen proteasomalen Abbau, wodurch schließlich NF-κB aktiviert wird. Die NF-κB-Aktivierung kann u. a. durch den TNF-Rezeptor (TNFR) induziert werden. Am aktivierten TNFR werden viele Proteine durch verschiedene Ubiquitinketten modifiziert. Bisher wurde angenommen, dass die spezifische Bindung von NEMO an K63-verknüpfte Ubiquitinketten ausschlaggebend für die Aktivierung von IKK ist. Jedoch spielen lineare Ubiquitinketten, die über den N-Terminus verknüpft sind, auch eine wichtige Rolle bei der Aktivierung von NF-κB und die UBAN von NEMO hat eine sehr hohe Affinität zu linearen Ubiquitinketten.
Um die genauen Vorgänge zu verstehen, die zur Aktivierung von NF-κB am TNFR führen, ist es nötig, zu analysieren, welche Proteine mit welchen Ubiquitinketten modifiziert werden und welche Ubiquitinrezeptoren daran binden.
In dieser Studie sollte detailliert untersucht werden, mit welchen Ubiquitin-ketten NEMO bevorzugt interagiert. Dazu wurden in vitro-Bindungsstudien mit bakteriell aufgereinigtem NEMO und verschiedenen Ubiquitinketten durchgeführt. Des Weiteren sollte geprüft werden, wie die Bindung von NEMO an bestimmte Ubiquitinketten die Aktivierung von NF-κB reguliert.
Dabei ergab sich, dass sowohl NEMO in voller Länge, als auch die UBAN, bevorzugt mit linearen Ubiquitinketten interagieren, wohingegen die Interaktion von NEMO mit anderen Ubiquitinketten relativ schwach ist. Ausgehend von einer Kristallstruktur eines Komplexes aus der NEMO-UBAN und linearem di-Ubiquitin, wurden NEMO-Mutanten generiert, die seletkiv die Bindung von NEMO an lineare Ubiquitinketten verhindern, während die schwache Bindung von NEMO an längere K63-verknüpfte Ketten erhalten blieb. Um die Relevanz der Interaktion von NEMO mit linearen Ubiquitinketten für die Aktivierung von NF κB zu überprüfen, wurden diese NEMO-Mutanten dann verwendet um Zellen die kein NEMO exprimieren zu rekonstituieren. Nach Stimulation dieser Zellen mit TNFα wurde NF-κB kaum aktiviert, womit gezeigt werden konnte, dass NEMO gezielt an lineare Ubiquitinketten binden muss, um NF-κB zu aktivieren. Zusätzlich zu seiner Rolle bei der Aktivierung von NF-κB ist NEMO ein wichtiger Inhibitor der durch den TNFR induzierten Apoptose. In dieser Studie wurde gezeigt, dass diese Apoptoseinhibierung abhängig von der Bindung von NEMO an lineare Ubiquitinketten ist, da die Zellen die NEMO-Mutanten exprimierten, die keine linearen Ketten binden können, durch Apoptose starben, währen Wildtyp-Zellen überlebten.
Zusammenfassend konnte in dieser Studie gezeigt werden, dass NEMO bevorzugt und mit vergleichsweise hoher Affinität an lineare Ubiquitinketten bindet und dass diese spezifische Bindung wichtig für die Inhibierung von TNFR-induzierter Apoptose sowie für die Aktivierung von NF-κB ist.
Development of decoration and preferential-etching methods for delineation of crystal defects in semiconductor materials
- Silicon wafers such as Silicon on Insulator (SOI) and strained silicon on Insulator (sSOI) are the essential and basic materials of advanced microelectronic devices. However, they often show various kinds of crystal defects which impair the function of these devices. The most efficient method to date, for detecting such defects and for determining their density, is to delineate them by etching the wafers with a suitable etching solution and characterise them via light optical microscopy. Etch pits are formed at defect sites which are etched at a faster rate than at the perfect lattice. The standard etching solution used for SOI and sSOI is a dilute version of Secco. As Secco contains carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous chromium (VI), the use of which is or will be restricted by law in many countries, suitable chromium (VI)-free etching solutions like Organic Peracid Etches (OPE), modified Chemical Polishing Etches (CP) like CP4 mod and mixtures with organic oxidizing agents like chloranil (CA) have been developed for the successful delineation of various types of crystal defects.
However there are still nanometer-sized defects which are hard to detect or escape detection by this method. Copper decoration is a well known method to magnify these defects. It consists in applying a copper nitrate solution to the back of the SOI or sSOI wafer. On annealing, copper diffuses through the substrate and the BOX (buried oxide) to the SOI/sSOI film and on quenching to room temperature, copper precipitates as copper silicide, SiCu3, foremost at crystal defects where the lattice strain is greater than at perfect lattice sites. These silicides increase the volume in these parts of the crystal lattice and defect magnification occurs. A considerable disadvantage of this method is its tendency for artefact formation, when the copper concentration used is too high, with the copper precipitating at the film surface. The consequence is a higher density of etch pits whereby true defect etch pits cannot be differentiated from those caused by artefacts.
The aim of this thesis is to show that the processes of decorating and etching can be combined successfully to delineate all crystal defects in SOI and sSOI. An ideal result would have been to find a copper decoration procedure that decorates all existing crystal defects at a copper concentration that avoids artefact formation.